Covering more than the conventional “food-only” role of the agriculture, the international contributors to Agriculture, Human Security, and Global Peace detail how the solution to agricultural problems can lead to the general socioeconomic and political development of impoverished countries. Contributors include: Ronald F. Lehman II (Agriculture and the Changing Taxonomy of War); Jean-Pierre Contzen and Jacques Groothaert (The Collapse of the Soviet Union: Its Impact on Peace and the Consequences for Agriculture); Jimmy Carter (Agricultural Development and Human Rights in the Future of Agriculture); Tony Addison (Agricultural Development for Peace); Marilyn Silberfein (The Impact of Conflict and Resources on Agriculture); M. S. Swaminathan (Hunger, the Vicious Enemy of Peace: Implications for Global Community); Norman E. Borlag and Christopher Dowswell (The Second Green Revolution); and Albert Sasson (Agricultural Biotechnology Applications in Africa).
This study focuses on the transformation of the U.S. agricultural economy in the middle of the nineteenth center and its impact on farm famalies. In the first detailed case study of th etransition of subsistence to commercial agriculture, te author examines call formation, migration, and household structure in the context of emerging agricultural markets and the growing availability of cheap consumer goods.
What do beer-swilling swine, predator-friendly sheep, and David Letterman have in common? They are all part of agriculture's first evolution in 10,000 years. As population growth levels off, production yields continue to grow and demands on agriculture change, the focus of agriculture is moving from just feeding a growing planet to feeding a planet with environmental concerns. Eco-entrepreneurs are taking advantage of the new business opportunities arising from these changes. Applying solutions from the creative to the mundane, they are greening both their pocketbooks and the vistas around them.In The Ecological Agrarian, J. Bishop Grewell and Clay Landry share stories of the numerous eco-entrepreneurs at work, the challenges they face, and the benefits they hope to reap. Beginning in 8500 B.C., Grewell and Landry provide a brief overview of how agriculture not only shaped history, but made written history and civilization even possible. From there, they explain how we are entering an unprecedented era where the race to feed the planet is no longer the lone driving force behind agriculture. That battle, they argue, has largely been won.A new age of agriculture presents new challenges and opportunities. Grewell and Landry document agriculture's response and then draw conclusions from successes and failures to determine what institutions best foster the entrepreneurs trailblazing agriculture's future.
Large fluctuations in the price of primary-in particular agricultural-commodities began to receive the attention of economists and public affairs leaders at the begin-ning of the twentieth century. The world economic depression of the 1930s gave a new impetus to the concerns and to proposals for countering what became known as the problem of "excessive price fluctuations," especially of commodities in interna-tional trade. Several options were investigated, including: extended agreements for the purchase and sale of commodities; buffer stock; preferably internationally managed export quotas; or various combinations of these three. After World War II, proposals for international action to alleviate the problem became widespread. Under the guidance of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), International Commodity Agreements (ICAs) were presented as a solution to the world's economic ills and problems, especially for lower income countries. Five full-fledged ICAs- for wheat, sugar, coffee, tin, and cacao - were negotiated and put into effect. In addition, international consultative discussion "groups" were established for a large number of commodities, especially under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). However, reality did not follow the promises of theory. During the 1980s every one of the five ICAs collapsed, some with devastating economic consequences. Among the ICAs, the Market Management Agreements on sugar had the longest existence, involved the largest number of countries, and were the best administered, but still did not survive. This volume, an insider's story on the negotiations and administration of the agree-ments on sugar, is the first detailed analysis of the rise and fall of an ICA . Viton presents a unique history of the sugar ICA and discusses the inevitable shortsighted-ness of long-term international economic management while contending that creating arrangements that promote international study and discussion about commodity developments and problems may be more productive in the long run.
Examines the economic development of the United States from colonial times through the mid-Twentieth Century and uses elementary economic analysis as a tool for illuminating historical events and their economic origins and consequences. It will consider how the economy has grown over time as well as how and why the structure of the American economy has changed over time. Throughout American economic history various public and private policies have at times been successful and at other times failed. Accordingly the prevailing theme of economic history can be expressed as the idea that any particular policy is not destined to succeed or fail but rather that there are always viable choices. Indeed, economic history is a record of those choices and their effects. The aim of this course is not to provide you with conventional and one-dimensional interpretations but rather to offer you alternative economic views of historical events. Ideally this course will help you understand and apply economic analysis to historical events as well as to ascertain probable implications for current and future policies.