Agriculture

Covering more than the conventional “food-only” role of the agriculture, the international contributors to Agriculture, Human Security, and Global Peace detail how the solution to agricultural problems can lead to the general socioeconomic and political development of impoverished countries. Contributors include: Ronald F. Lehman II (Agriculture and the Changing Taxonomy of War); Jean-Pierre Contzen and Jacques Groothaert (The Collapse of the Soviet Union: Its Impact on Peace and the Consequences for Agriculture); Jimmy Carter (Agricultural Development and Human Rights in the Future of Agriculture); Tony Addison (Agricultural Development for Peace); Marilyn Silberfein (The Impact of Conflict and Resources on Agriculture); M. S. Swaminathan (Hunger, the Vicious Enemy of Peace: Implications for Global Community); Norman E. Borlag and Christopher Dowswell (The Second Green Revolution); and Albert Sasson (Agricultural Biotechnology Applications in Africa).
R. Douglas Hurt's brief history of American agriculture, from the prehistoric period through the twentieth century, is written for anyone coming to this subject for the first time. It also provides a ready reference to the economic, social, political, scientific, and technological changes that have most affected farming in America. American Agriculture is a story of considerable achievement and success, but it is also a story of greed, racism, and violence. Hurt offers a provocative look at a history that has been shaped by the best and worst of human nature. Here is the background essential for understanding the complexity of American agricultural history, from the transition to commercial agriculture during the colonial period to the failure of government policy following World War II. Hurt includes the contributions of African Americans, Native Americans, and women. This revised edition closes with an examination of the troubled landscape at the turn of the twenty-first century. This survey will serve as a text for courses in the history of American agriculture and rural studies as well as a supplementary text for economic history and rural sociology courses. It is illustrated with maps, drawings, and over seventy splendid photographs.
The Arguments of Agriculture presents the major issues, questions, and conflicting opinions of influential policymakers and critics concerning the role and future of modern agriculture. The author urges the reader to weight and consider all positions and supplies a primer in the basic arguments of agriculture. Each chapter begins with a series of hypothetical cases that illustrate the range of theoretical issues discussed in the chapter. The next section analyzes the basic issues, and the section entitled "Review" summarizes and contrasts the opinions of a number of prominent critics. Each chapter concludes with a list of recommended readings.
The problem of hunger is increasing. in general, we agree on that -- but our agreement ceases when we consider appropriate definitions, approaches, and solutions to global scarcity of food. This book emphasizes that the world's food problems are technically, biologically, socially, politically, economically, and morally complex. Early chapters set out alternative conceptions of the world food problem and explore the major variables and assumptions of each. Subsequent chapters compare and contrast modern agriculture with traditional and subsistence forms of agriculture as biological systems. A fourfold classification of nations into food-sufficient and food-deficient and rich and poor precedes a discussion of political, economic, and cultural aspects of food policies in the United States, Europe, and selected less-developed nations. The book also considers the prospects for scientific and technological developments as partial solutions to global scarcity of food and makes guarded recommendations, reaffirming the complexity of the issues involved in world hunger.
Today, Purdue Extension delivers practical, research-based information that transforms lives and livelihoods. Tailored to the needs of Indiana, its programs include: Agriculture and Natural Resources, Health and Human Sciences, Economic and Community Development, and 4-H Youth Development. However, today’s success is built on over a century of visionary hard work and outreach.   Imagine Indiana's farms at the turn of the last century. Having a good or bad year could mean the difference between prosperity and your family going hungry. Before farmers abandoned decades of proven practices or adopted new technology, they would have to be convinced that it would work and that using it was in their best interest.   Enter county Extension agents, who took up their posts in 1912. Many of the most significant agricultural innovations of the last hundred years were still being developed in the laboratories and experimental fields of land-grant universities like Purdue.   Enriching the Hoosier Farm Family: A Photo History of Indiana’s Early County Extension Agents captures the story of the state’s first Extension agents in archival photos and words, when Extension was an idea and county agents were folks who traveled muddy back roads visiting farmers day after day, year after year.   Compiled from original county agent records discovered in Purdue University’s Virginia Kelly Karnes Archives and Special Collections Research Center in the Purdue University Libraries, Enriching the Hoosier Farm Family includes hundreds of rare, never-before-published photographs and anecdotal information about how county agents overcame their constituents’ reluctance to change. Through patient outreach and dedicated engagement, they built trust in communities and little by little were able to share new information that introduced farmers and their families to exciting new frontiers of productivity.  
The key role that farming plays in the economy of Indiana today owes much to the work of John Harrison Skinner (1874–1942). Skinner was a pioneering educator and administrator who transformed the study of agriculture at Purdue University during the first decades of the twentieth century. From humble origins, occupying one building and 150 acres at the start of his career, the agriculture program grew to spread over ten buildings and 1,000 acres by the end of his tenure as its first dean. A focused, single-minded man, Skinner understood from his own background as a grain and stock farmer that growers could no longer rely on traditional methods in adapting to a rapidly changing technological and economic environment, in which tractors were replacing horses and new crops such as alfalfa and soy were transforming the arable landscape. Farmers needed education, and only by hiring the best and brightest faculty could Purdue give them the competitive edge that they needed. While he excelled as a manager and advocate for Indiana agriculture, Skinner never lost touch with his own farming roots, taking especial interest in animal husbandry. During the course of his career as dean (1907–1939), the number of livestock on Purdue farms increased fourfold, and Skinner showed his knowledge of breeding by winning many times at the International Livestock Exposition. Today, the scale of Purdue’s College of Agriculture has increased to offer almost fifty programs to hundreds of students from all over the globe. However, at its base, the agricultural program in place today remains largely as John Harrison Skinner built it, responsive to Indiana but with its focus always on scientific innovation in the larger world.
Based on extensive interviews and archival research, this book traces the career of Orville Redenbacher, the “popcorn king,” from his agricultural studies at Purdue University to his emergence as an American advertising icon. Born in Brazil, Indiana, in 1907, Orville began his lifelong obsession with the development of new strains of seed at Purdue where he earned a degree in agronomy while also playing in the All-American Marching Band. After experimenting with thousands of varieties, Orville and his business partner Charlie Bowman launched Orville Redenbacher’s gourmet popping corn in 1970. Through a combination of shrewd marketing and a notably superior product, the partners controlled a third of the market for popping corn by 1976, when their “Chester Hybrids” business was sold to Hunt Wesson Foods. Orville Redenbacher continued to prosper as a larger-than-life brand spokesperson and a symbol of wholesomeness and fun until his death in 1995. Based on interviews conducted in the last few years of Orville’s life, this book paints a fascinating picture of a deeply serious agricultural pioneer and marketing genius, whose image can still be found in almost every North American home. Hear more about this book in an interview broadcast on WBAA, Indiana's oldest radio station, on July 14, 2011.
Native Trees of the Midwest is a definitive guide to identifying trees in Indiana and surrounding states, written by three leading forestry experts. Descriptive text explains how to identify every species in any season and color photographs show all important characteristics. Not only does the book allow the user to identify trees and learn of their ecological and distributional attributes, but it also presents an evaluation of each species relative to its potential ornamental value for those interested in landscaping. Since tree species have diverse values to wildlife, an evaluation of wildlife uses is presented with a degree of detail available nowhere else. The revised and expanded second edition contains a chapter on introduced species that have become naturalized and invasive throughout the region. All accounts have been reviewed and modifications made when necessary to reflect changes in taxonomy, status, or wildlife uses. Keys have been modified to incorporate introduced species.   An interview with the authors is available on YouTube.
Photographing Turkey Run: A Guide to Nature Photography was written to be used in conjunction with Daniel P. Shepardson’s A Place Called Turkey Run: A Celebration of Indiana’s Second State Park in Photographs and Words. This guide contains tips and techniques designed to provide a basic understanding of how to photograph nature and improve one’s photography skills.    
Today, Purdue Extension delivers practical, research-based information that transforms lives and livelihoods. Tailored to the needs of Indiana, its current programs include Agriculture and Natural Resources, Health and Human Sciences, Economic and Community Development, and 4-H Youth Development. However, today’s success is built on over a century of visionary hard work and outreach. Scattering the Seeds of Knowledge: The Words and Works of Indiana’s Pioneer County Extension Agents chronicles the tales of the first county Extension agents, from 1912 to 1939. Their story brings readers back to a day when Extension was little more than words on paper, when county agents traveled the muddy back roads, stopping at each farm, introducing themselves to the farmer and his family. These Extension women and men had great confidence in the research and the best practices they represented, and a commanding knowledge of the inner workings of farms and rural residents. Most importantly, however, they had a knack with people. In many cases they were given the cold shoulder at first by the farmers they were sent to help. However, through old-fashioned, can-do perseverance and a dogged determination to make a difference in the lives of people, these county Extension agents slowly inched the state forward one farmer at a time. Their story is a history lesson on what agriculture was like at the turn of the twentieth century, and a lesson to us all about how patient outreach and dedicated engagement—backed by proven science from university research—reshaped and modernized Indiana agriculture.
As the definitive identification guide to the shrubs and woody vines of Indiana, this book also provides coverage of 90% of the species to be found in surrounding Midwestern US states. As well as covering indigenous species, it also includes all currently known invasive shrubs. Written by two leading experts in plant taxonomy, the guide is prepared in the same attractive, easy-to-use format as the bestselling Native Trees of the Midwest. Descriptive text explains how to identify every species in any season, and original color photographs taken by Sally Weeks detail all important characteristics. The authors provide practical guidance concerning the potential ornamental value of each species for those interested in landscaping and also evaluate their potential value for encouraging wildlife. Designed for experts in natural resource management as well as the interested general public, the volume includes distribution maps, identification keys, and an index of both common and Latin names.  
This reference tracks the distribution of approximately 200 common weed species throughout Indiana's 92 counties. Each weed's distribution is shown on range maps at three times -- 1899, 1940, and 2004. The Overleases' compendium records the continuing expansion of weeds, aggressive plants that can move into an available habitat, across Indiana. The book itself is also one that continues the timeline of two other major studies of the Hoosier state - Stanley Coulter's 1899 catalog of Indiana plants and Charlie Deam's 1955 flora of Indiana.
  Caras views humanity's ascent from Stone Age hunter-gatherers to modern apartment-dwelling cat-and dog-owners as inextricably woven with animals. As beasts of burden, means of transport, and protein source, animals made possible agricultural surpluses, triggered cultural cross-pollination, facilitated the invention of wheeled vehicles, roads, and languages. Moreover, our intense personal interaction with animals refined human emotions. Sheep breeding in Mesopotamia, reindeer as spiritual companions to Norse shamans, pet dogs in ancient Greece and Japan, swan-keeping in 10th-century Britain and diverse cultures' relationships with birds, horses, camels, cows, goats, fish, bees, elephants, ferrets and other creatures are elucidated as bestselling animal authority Caras, president of the ASPCA, skillfully blends history, zoology, folklore and anecdote. He writes with deep reverence for the animal kingdom, and this delightful, enlightening book, beautifully illustrated with sensitive, detailed drawings, will enhance one's perception of history, the human species and the sentient creatures with whom we share the planet. - Publishers Weekly An informative, insightful history of animal domestication through the ages, by ASPCA president Caras, author of numerous fine works on pets and wildlife. As Caras defines it, domestication is ``the shaping of a species by man, using selective breeding to replace natural selection.  ''In studiously reviewing the origins and probable methods of domestication, as well as the ancestry of all manner of animals, from goats and horses in the Stone Age to camels and elephants around 4000 b.c., to ferrets and cats in more recent years, Caras explains how ``animals have played a vital role in man's evolutionary course.''  
This study focuses on the transformation of the U.S. agricultural economy in the middle of the nineteenth center and its impact on farm famalies. In the first detailed case study of th etransition of subsistence to commercial agriculture, te author examines call formation, migration, and household structure in the context of emerging agricultural markets and the growing availability of cheap consumer goods.
The American Vine-Dresser's Guide, by Jean Jacques (John James) Dufour is a treatise on growing grapes in America , specifically the eastern half of the country. This early work, first published in 1826, is an amazingly thorough text on grape growing and wine making. Dufour's keen sense of observation gave him an understanding of grape growing comparable to many "experts" of today, without the benefit of the modern sciences of biology, plant physiology, plant pathology, soil fertility, and so on. Despite the fact that the book was written nearly 200 years ago, many of the practices recommended are still applicable in the modern vineyard. Dufour's detailed recommendations on vineyard management make the reader realize that very little has changed in grape growing technology over the past 200 years. Many topics are covered in detail that would be appropriate for today's growers along with text notes and 16 pages of color photos.
Assuming you don't want your cabinets, RTA furniture or other products made from plywood to smell like dirty diapers, a quick look at A hardwood plywood manual by Ang Schramm is in order.According to Schramm, South American Lapuna Sumauma wood has a high starch content that is susceptible to attack by anaerobic bacteria while sitting on the bottoms of holding ponds at the veneer plant. The byproducts, butyric acid and caproic acid, exude an odor that may not always be noticeable in properly dried wood in dry conditions, but becomes offensive when humidity increases.As can be expected, veneer from this species is in low demand, therefore cheap, and manufacturers buying on price point alone can find themselves in possession of a product whose odor is, at this time, irreversible and without remedy.Not all of A Hardwood Plywood Manual is so esoteric. The book's 157 pages are organized into sections covering variations in appearance, the veneer manufacturing process, types of veneer matching, grades and product standard, substrates, the hardwood plywood manufacturing process, meeting customer expectations and troubleshooting common problems.Liberally sprinkled with black-and-white photographs and diagrams, the book gives excellent detail on describing, the processes of plywood and veneer manufacturing so the reader can better understand the advantages and limitations of the product and the various processes.For instance, the chapter on troubleshooting provides a diagram showing why one side of veneer (tight side) is more heat-reflective and impervious to finish than is the other (loose) side, which is more light-refractive and absorbent.By understanding the relative differences between the sides and why those differences exist, it is then possible to present an explanation why starch book-matching veneers has the problem of adjacent sheets of veneer having different light-reflecting/refracting and finish absorbing characteristics.The manual can then proceed to explain different techniques to overcome the variation and present a more uniform appearance: in this case, glue-sizing or wash coating, and to recommend specific products to help achieve the desired result.
Habitat loss and fragmentation arguably pose the greatest threats to biological diversity. Agriculture is a dominant land use that, along with urban sprawl and residential development, can reduce the amount and connectedness of natural areas required by many native species. Unfortunately, progress has been slow in integrating nature and biodiversity protection into community planning in intensively farmed regions, especially in America 's heartland. Seldom do issues related to species conservation receive consideration during local planning activities. Lack of progress stems partly from scientific inadequacies in understanding the dynamics of complex landscapes, and from a lack of engagement of non-scientific stakeholders by scientists and modelers. The result of these shortcomings is a critical disconnect of conservation issues from the planning infrastructure. This book provides a blueprint for advancing conceptual understanding of conservation in agricultural regions. It accomplishes this with a two-pronged approach: first, by developing spatially structured models that acknowledge the link between socio-economic drivers of land-use change and the dynamics of species occupying agricultural landscapes with abrupt changes in land cover (i.e., sharp edges); and second, by providing guidelines and examples to enable scientists to effectively engage stakeholders in participatory learning and planning activities that integrate biodiversity with other, more traditional considerations. The structure of the book is truly interdisciplinary, linking the efforts of ecologists, economists, statisticians, mathematicians, and land-use specialists.
What do beer-swilling swine, predator-friendly sheep, and David Letterman have in common? They are all part of agriculture's first evolution in 10,000 years. As population growth levels off, production yields continue to grow and demands on agriculture change, the focus of agriculture is moving from just feeding a growing planet to feeding a planet with environmental concerns. Eco-entrepreneurs are taking advantage of the new business opportunities arising from these changes. Applying solutions from the creative to the mundane, they are greening both their pocketbooks and the vistas around them.In The Ecological Agrarian, J. Bishop Grewell and Clay Landry share stories of the numerous eco-entrepreneurs at work, the challenges they face, and the benefits they hope to reap. Beginning in 8500 B.C., Grewell and Landry provide a brief overview of how agriculture not only shaped history, but made written history and civilization even possible. From there, they explain how we are entering an unprecedented era where the race to feed the planet is no longer the lone driving force behind agriculture. That battle, they argue, has largely been won.A new age of agriculture presents new challenges and opportunities. Grewell and Landry document agriculture's response and then draw conclusions from successes and failures to determine what institutions best foster the entrepreneurs trailblazing agriculture's future.
An Ecological History of Agriculture, 10,000 B.C.-A.D. 10,000 opens with the first known agriculture and ends in a future in which we might have to use fewer resources to feed more people. The book describes past and present agriculture and looks at future possibilities.   Using environment, population, and available energy sources as the principal determinants of agricultural systems, this is the first survey to cover preindustrial agriculture and pastoralism on all inhabited continents and from equatorial forest to tundra. The tropics present a tapestry: slash-and-burn in the forests, multistoried gardens of trees and annuals, combinations of cultivation and nomadic pastoralism, and a variety of "wet" systems on land that is part field and part swamp. The parallels among dry lands and dry summer lands are striking; peoples thousands of miles apart evolve like means to divert, deliver, and conserve water. In humid temperate climes there is more divergence than convergence; East Asians, Europeans, and American Indians find very different ways to exploit similar environments.   An Ecological History of Agriculture, 10,000 B.C.-A.D. 10,000 will be of special interest to agriculturalists, agricultural historians, anthropologists, geographers, and anyone concerned with agriculture and its history.
If you want to get downright buggy, pick up this wonderful collection of insect talesfrom the "Bug Bowl" guru, Tom Turpin. After you're through, you'll know more about the six-legged kingdom and its occupants than any bookworm that you run across. How does insect suturing work? Which insect did the ancient Egyptians worship as a god? What did Ogden Nash have to say about termites? Which insect produces "Turkey Red" dye? What bug has survived for 300 million years? How does a horse fly manage to fly without its head? Each tale is easily accessible, provides fun and scientific facts, and is self-contained. Juveniles and adults alike will be fascinated with the world of Turpin's bugs. The nicely illustrated collection won't give you ants in your pants, but just might put a flea in your ear.
A biochemist and an agronomist present the known facts - for the first time in one volume - about guar, an Old World legume. Guar is now grown in large quantities to produce guar gum, an important industrial water-soluble hydrocolloid. Guar seed has a high content of vegetable protein, and with genetic improvement, it could provide a valuable source of protein in the human diet. The guar plant has been cultivated in India and Pakistan for generations, and guar gum has been used in manufacturing in the United States and abroad since World War 11. Although some investigation has been made into the potential of guar seed as a valuable source of protein for the human diet, more research is required to make use of guar seed economically feasible.
The Harvest Story depicts the life of rural American threshermen. This collection of first-person narratives chronicles the eyewitness accounts of people who threshed grain with steam engines. The book selects anecdotes from over 50 volumes of material published in The Iron-Men Album Magazine and arranges them in a coherent recitation. The result is a story of hard, honest work, of heartfelt cooperation and of triumph not unmarred by tragedy. Readers hear the recollections of those who pitched the bundles of grain onto the horse-drawn wagons, unloaded these bundles into the threshing machine and saw the stream of clean wheat cascade from the grain auger. Readers encounter the wit and humor that characterized yesteryear's harvests. They learn about the vast industries that supported the agricultural enterprise, and they discover the dangers posed by mechanical equipment. The Harvest Story concludes by examining the birth and development of a movement to rescue the agrarian past from oblivion. This book captures authentic voices from the era of steam-powered threshing and offers readable interpretation and explanation, including detailed appendices.
A recent history of plant science, this compilation of lectures was initially presented at the 1991 Plant Science Lecture Series, sponsored by Iowa State University. The eight scholars featured are key contributors to plant science over the past 50 years.   Scientists often get so engrossed in the day-to-day and month-to-month activities of their research programs and professional endeavors that they fail to record and interpret the chronology of events that lead to great scientific discoveries and advances in using science for the benefit of humankind. Iowa State University, through the sponsorship of the Department of Agronomy, Botany, Forestry, Horticulture, and Plant Pathology, presents an annual Plant Science Lecture Series, which provides the opportunity for outstanding scholars to share their knowledge and expertise in an atmosphere of intellectual camaraderie.   Historical Perspectives in Plant Science is a compilation of the 1991 lectures presented for the series and provides a unique look at plant science history via anecdotes and personal knowledge about research failures and successes, cooperation and competition among scientists, and the interplay of discoveries in the several disciplines encompassed by the field of plant science. It provides a benchmark, as of 1991, for the history of plant science as seen, experienced, and interpreted by eight scholars who played significant roles in "making plant science history."   The areas of research covered range from a general overview of plant science to the development of the history of plant physiology, plant pathology, quantitative genetics, and cytogenetics to molecular biology to the history of plant breeding methology and accomplishments.
"Scientists have fun and exciting jobs! In this book, you will meet scientists from all over the world who work with animals. These scientists work hard to make sure people and their animals stay healthy. Maybe one day you will be a scientist too! You can start your science training now by completing the activities in this book."This activity book highlights how eight people became scientists. Published in full color, the book features fun activities relevant to the different scientific specialties represented for children to complete. The publication of the book has been supported by the National Institutes of Health, the National Center for Research Resources, and a Scientific Education Partnership Award. An online version is available free of charge to download and print at: http://www.purdue.edu/svmengaged/docs/SEPA/3rd-Grade-Activity-Book-LoRes...