Agriculture

Large fluctuations in the price of primary-in particular agricultural-commodities began to receive the attention of economists and public affairs leaders at the begin-ning of the twentieth century. The world economic depression of the 1930s gave a new impetus to the concerns and to proposals for countering what became known as the problem of "excessive price fluctuations," especially of commodities in interna-tional trade. Several options were investigated, including: extended agreements for the purchase and sale of commodities; buffer stock; preferably internationally managed export quotas; or various combinations of these three. After World War II, proposals for international action to alleviate the problem became widespread. Under the guidance of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), International Commodity Agreements (ICAs) were presented as a solution to the world's economic ills and problems, especially for lower income countries. Five full-fledged ICAs- for wheat, sugar, coffee, tin, and cacao - were negotiated and put into effect. In addition, international consultative discussion "groups" were established for a large number of commodities, especially under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). However, reality did not follow the promises of theory. During the 1980s every one of the five ICAs collapsed, some with devastating economic consequences. Among the ICAs, the Market Management Agreements on sugar had the longest existence, involved the largest number of countries, and were the best administered, but still did not survive. This volume, an insider's story on the negotiations and administration of the agree-ments on sugar, is the first detailed analysis of the rise and fall of an ICA . Viton presents a unique history of the sugar ICA and discusses the inevitable shortsighted-ness of long-term international economic management while contending that creating arrangements that promote international study and discussion about commodity developments and problems may be more productive in the long run.
Methods in Fruit Breeding serves as a companion volume to Advances in Fruit Breeding, which treats the subject of plant improvement on a crop-by-crop basis. Published in 1975, Advances in Fruit Breeding successfully brought the literature up-to-date, and the book's reception by the fruit breeding community was gratifying. However, because each chapter is narrowly focused, practitioners find it more useful than do students. Now Methods in Fruit Breeding considers the subject from a procedural and theoretical point of view. Each of the twenty-four chapters draws on a wide base of crop examples that provide fresh insights into old problems. Consequently, this new work will be useful to teachers and students as well as to fruit breeders. Recent rapid advances in plant science have had a great impact on the technology of crop improvement. Methods in Fruit Breeding, which introduces the reader to these new approaches, is divided into five major sections.
Methods in Fruit Breeding serves as a companion volume to Advances in Fruit Breeding, which treats the subject of plant improvement on a crop-by-crop basis. Published in 1975, Advances in Fruit Breeding successfully brought the literature up-to-date, and the book's reception by the fruit breeding community was gratifying. However, because each chapter is narrowly focused, practitioners find it more useful than do students. Now Methods in Fruit Breeding considers the subject from a procedural and theoretical point of view. Each of the twenty-four chapters draws on a wide base of crop examples that provide fresh insights into old problems. Consequently, this new work will be useful to teachers and students as well as to fruit breeders. Recent rapid advances in plant science have had a great impact on the technology of crop improvement. Methods in Fruit Breeding, which introduces the reader to these new approaches, is divided into five major sections.
Inspired by actual gardeners' inquiries, each chapter deals with such down-to-earth subjects as when to start seeds, why plants might fail to bloom, pruning techniques, identifying and controlling common pests, home fruit production, plant propagation, harvesting and storing, and seasonal gift ideas.   One of the latest trends in home horticulture is regional gardening, but most popular garden books and syndicated columns are written by authors on the East and West coasts. Possum in the Pawpaw Tree is aimed at the heartland of the United States, where "normal" weather means bitter winters, torrential spring rains, and summer drought. Since such normal weather is assured, midwestern gardeners must be prepared for the unexpected.   The material here is arranged to provide a handy month-by-month guide to indoor and outdoor gardening activities, both for the novice and the more experienced gardener. Each chapter contains a gardening calendar, short essays, and a section of questions-and-answers that focus on gardening problems and disasters peculiar to the Midwest.   The seasonal arrangement serves as a starting point for beginners and provides reminders for more experienced gardeners. Monthly topics cover houseplants, garden flowers, vegetables, woody landscape plants, lawns, and ideas for new gardening adventures.
In aseptic processing, food is stored at ambient temperatures in sterilized containers free of spoilage organisms and pathogens. The results of this food technology come in all shapes and sizes, from the consumer packages of milk on the shelves of the supermarket to the huge containers full of orange juice transported around the world by cargo ships. Over the last couple of decades, aseptic bulk storage and distribution has revolutionized the global food trade. For example, more than 90 percent of the approximately 24 million tons of fresh tomatoes harvested globally each year are aseptically processed and packaged for year-round remanufacture into various food products. The technology has also been applied to bring potable water and emergency food aid to survivors of the 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia and the victims of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, as well as to other crisis situations worldwide. The construction of new aseptic facilities continues around the world, and an up-to-date understanding of the technology is essential for a new generation of food scientists and engineers alike. The contributors to this important textbook discuss all aspects of aseptic processing and packaging, focusing on the areas that most influence the success or failure of the process. Fully updated, this new edition covers all areas of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, packaging, and regulations as they relate to aseptic processing.
These essays were prepared for a conference held in Tallinn, Ethiopia, under the auspices of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the International Research and Exchanges Board.
From yesterday’s gingham girls to today’s Farmer Janes, The Midwest Farmer’s Daughter unearths the untold history and renewed cultural currency of an American icon at a time when fully 30 percent of new farms in the US are woman-owned. From farm women bloggers, to “back-to-the-land” homesteaders and seed-savers, to rural graphic novelists and, ultimately, to the seven generations of farm daughters who have animated his own family since before the Civil War, the author travels across the region to shine new documentary light on this seedbed for American virtue, energy, and ingenuity.   Packed with many memorable interviews, print artifacts, and historic images, this groundbreaking documentary history describes the centuries-long reiteration and reinterpretation of agrarian daughters in the field, over the airwaves, on the printed page, and in the court of public opinion. Offering a sweeping cultural and social history, it ranges widely and well from Jane Smiley’s Pulitzer Prize-winning A Thousand Acres to Laura Ingalls Wilder’s proto-feminist commentaries for the Missouri Ruralist; from the critical importance of rural girls and young women to time-honored organizations such as the Farm Bureau, 4-H, and FFA to the entrepreneurial role today’s female agriculturalists and sustainable farm advocates play in farmers’ markets, urban farms, and community-supported agriculture. For all those whose lives have been graced by the enduring strength of this regional and national touchstone, The Midwest Farmer’s Daughter offers a one-of-a-kind scholarly examination and contemporary appreciation.   Listen to an interview with the author by clicking here. The interview with WBAA, Indiana's oldest operating radio station and an NPR affiliate, was first broadcast on August 23, 2012.  
In this book the author has created a quick and easy-to-use reference guide for choosing plant material for landscape designs. This reference manual includes comprehensive lists with search criteria for each of the major plant groups, including trees, shrubs, groundcovers, perennials, vines, grasses, and ferns. These plant groups contain hundreds of specific species, varieties, and cultivars that are readily available in the marketplace from the major production nurseries. Landscape architects, designers, contractors, or anyone who designs with plants can easily choose plants that will work on their site. The book is technical enough for the professional, yet simple enough to be used by the layperson. Both botanical and common names are used and an extensive amount of cultural and environmental information is presented.
Virginia Claypool Meredith's role in directly managing the affairs of a large and prosperous farm in east-central Indiana opened doors that were often closed to women in late nineteenth century America. Her status allowed her to campaign for the education of women, in general, and rural women, in particular. While striving to change society's expectations for women, she also gave voice to the important role of women in the home. A lifetime of dedication made Virginia Meredith "the most remarkable woman in Indiana" and the "Queen of American Agriculture." Meredith was also an integral part of the history of Purdue University. She was the first woman appointed to serve on the university's board of trustees, had a residence hall named in her honor, and worked with her adopted daughter, Mary L. Matthews, in creating the School of Home Economics at Purdue University.
Virginia Claypool Meredith's role in directly managing the affairs of a large and prosperous farm in east-central Indiana opened doors that were often closed to women in late nineteenth century America. Her status allowed her to campaign for the education of women, in general, and rural women, in particular. While striving to change society's expectations for women, she also gave voice to the important role of women in the home. A lifetime of dedication made Virginia Meredith "the most remarkable woman in Indiana" and the "Queen of American Agriculture." Meredith was also an integral part of the history of Purdue University. She was the first woman appointed to serve on the university's board of trustees, had a residence hall named in her honor, and worked with her adopted daughter, Mary L. Matthews, in creating the School of Home Economics at Purdue University. This text refers to the leatherbound special edition.
Examines the economic development of the United States from colonial times through the mid-Twentieth Century and uses elementary economic analysis as a tool for illuminating historical events and their economic origins and consequences. It will consider how the economy has grown over time as well as how and why the structure of the American economy has changed over time. Throughout American economic history various public and private policies have at times been successful and at other times failed. Accordingly the prevailing theme of economic history can be expressed as the idea that any particular policy is not destined to succeed or fail but rather that there are always viable choices. Indeed, economic history is a record of those choices and their effects. The aim of this course is not to provide you with conventional and one-dimensional interpretations but rather to offer you alternative economic views of historical events. Ideally this course will help you understand and apply economic analysis to historical events as well as to ascertain probable implications for current and future policies.
The author of Flies in the Face of Fashion, Mites Make Right, and Other Bugdacious Tales is back with more ditties on the insect kingdom. Find out about Aesop's insects, Edgar Allan Poe's Gold Bug, and Ogden Nash's creepy crawlies. Dig up some facts on the Colorado and Japanese beetles, and cash in on the million dollar beetle. Head for cover, the Bombardier beetles are coming! If you're in the dark, hook up with a firefly. Bugs have been around longer than your great-great-grandma—400 million years before to be somewhat exact. Insects strolled around with dinosaurs and kept on going even when the behemoths disappeared. What's Buggin You Now? let's you catch the bug without the jar!