History

"Using pamphlets, extensive primary sources, and research and views of well-known historians both cited in the text and heavily footnoted, Margerison explains how the Society of Thirty molded French public opinion... after the establishment... of the Estates General until August 4, 1789. Margerison questions the ideological motivations of crowd actions attributed to them by historians Furet, Halevi, Baker, and others
Pietas Austriaca is a path-breaking study of the relationship between religious beliefs and practices and Habsburg political culture from the end of the medieval period to the early twentieth century. In this seminal work, Anna Coreth examines the ways that Catholic beliefs in the power of the Eucharist, the cross, the Virgin Mary, and saints were crucial for the Habsburg ruling dynasties in Austria and Spain.Coreth analyzes how leading Habsburg rulers in the early modern period used Catholic sacraments, rituals, and symbols to create a sense of identity and political purpose for their far-flung possessions in Europe. She also demonstrates how this Catholic culture drew on earlier models of pious Catholic rulers, especially on the memory of Rudolph. In addition, Pietas Austriaca discusses the importance of this particular brand of Catholic piety in the confrontation with Protestantism in the Counterreformation period and in the encounter with the Muslim Turkish empire. Coreth extends her study to discuss the myriad ways that this religious culture continued to influence Austrian society in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Pietas Austriaca is a tour de force that combines expertly social, cultural, gender and intellectual analysis of the political and religious landscape of one of Europe's most important empires and leading dynastic houses.
Robert C. Kriebel's sympathetic biography of the prominent nineteenth-century Lafayette family weaves the story of four fascinating individuals into the web of state and national history and culture. The family members include John A. Stein, the distinguished state politician who devoted years to the founding of Purdue University; the indomitable mother, Virginia, who pursued a career in the local library when left widowed and penniless; the talented, albeit disreputable, Orth Stein, who achieved prominence as a journalist and illustrator but was also tried for murder; and the sheltered Evaleen Stein, who achieved local fame as a poet and author of children's books.
The Political Pulpit Revisited examines a set of arguments originally made in 1975 about church-state relations in the U.S. Scholars have long wondered how a nation of some two thousand different religious denominations has been able to remain relatively calm about such matters. Controversial issues like abortion rights, war-time pacifism, sanctuary for illegal aliens, clerical abuse of children, non-taxation of church property, and other matters con­tinually roil the political waters. The first edition describes how church and state tensions are worked out symbolically rather than coercively, legally, or economically. The Political Pulpit Revisited updates church/state arguments and then offers reflections by eight distinguished scholars who re-examine the relationship in light of recent events. The result is a fresh look at the American experiment in those relations and what it portends for the U.S. in the years ahead.
This book examines how one of Imperial Austria's principal ethnic conflicts, that between Czechs and Germans, developed in one of the major cities during the era of industrialization and urban growth. It shows how the inhabitants of Prague, the capital of Bohemia, constructed and articulated ethnic group loyalties and social solidarities over the course of the nineteenth century. The German-speaking inhabitants of the Bohemian capital developed a group identification and defined themselves as a minority as they dealt with growing Czech political and economic strength in the city and with their own sharp numerical decline: in the 1910 census only seven percent of the metropolitan population claimed that they spoke primarily German. The study uses census returns, extensive police and bureaucratic records, newspaper accounts, and memoirs on local social and political life to show how the German minority and the Czech majority developed demographically and economically in relation to each other and created separate social and political lives for their group members. The study carefully traces the roles of occupation, class, religion, and political ideology in the formation of German group loyalties and social solidarities. The social relations which bound together the members of the German-speaking minority and the social boundaries which separated them from the Czech majority at the end of the nineteenth century proved to be selective, and considerable contact went on across the lines in many facets of individuals' everyday life. As the German minority developed a shared group life, what came to define them and to separate them from the Czech majority was a shared Austro-German ethnic and national loyalty, an Austro-German national liberal ideology, the defense of common middle-class and lower-middle-class social and political interests, and a shared German public life. Both German-speaking Catholics and Jews could share in the sense of German community and group solidarity, provided they upheld middle-class liberal values. The bonds of community for the middle-class and lower-middle- class Germans in Prague established in the 1860s tended to exclude German-speaking wage laborers and lower middle class radical nationalists, who might challenge liberal national values. Despite all the efforts to strengthen German community solidarity and combat assimilation of German-speakers with the Czech majority from the 1880s to after 1900, the organized German community could do little to prevent the absorption of working-class German-speakers into the Czech population of the industrial districts.
The Pomp and Politics of Patriotism concentrates on the official presentation of the imperial cult, using the image of Franz Joseph (Habsburg emperor from 1848-1916) as a symbol of common identity in the Austrian half of the Habsburg Monarchy (Cisleithania), including the use of or rejection of this imagery by regional social and nationalist factions. During this period, the compelling notion was to use the imperial cult to define Habsburg patriotism. The story of the successes and setbacks in this endeavor, which illuminates the tension between national and supra-national identity in an age of expanding political participation, is the exploration of The Pomp and Politics of Patriotism.In the second half of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century, usually characterized as a period of national conflict and political paralysis, the promotion of the cult of the emperor reinforced and deepened a Cisleithania-wide culture of imperial celebration. Organizers of official imperial festivities adapted traditional Habsburg symbols and ceremonial forms to present the emperor as a binding force in this multi-national state. Catholic rituals, court ceremonies, imperial inspection tours of the provinces, and spectacular imperial celebrations did not seek to efface national identity; instead, official festivities defined national identity as a constituent element of a broader identification with the emperor-father and, through him, with "Austria."
In the early 1940s, prior to the United States' entry into World War II, through the joint efforts of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill, British soldiers were sent to the United States for flight training. This collection gives first-person accounts of the men who learned the art of flying in a place far from their homeland -- Florida. The stories provide a wonderful contrast between the two cultures and are told in the voices of British cadets, American cadets who trained with them, instructors, and other individuals who welcomed the British cadets into their homes and lives.
These studies of the development and constitution of Central Europe's spatial dimensions illustrate different attempts at establishing identity-structures. Some structures have a long continuity, others are comparatively new. In some new cases the identity has grown progressively from below and from within, while in others external forces and decisions from above have determined the territorial organization. To understand how ethnoterritorial identities arise as well as their potential impact, it is necessary to consult the historical record. This collection thus contributes to the understanding of some of the major trends in today's Europe.
This study examines Hernán Cortés, first as the author of Cartas de relación (1519-1526), and then as the protagonist of Francisco López de Gómara's Historia de la conquista de México (1552). It analyzes how these accounts represent his speech acts, including some of his key speeches; how they allow him to define the conquest in different ways to different audiences; and how they represent him as controlling the speech acts of others, most notably those of Moctezuma.
In the 1860s and 1870s, Danubian Romania embarked on its difficult transition from political subordination to independence. Throughout this arduous process, Romanians faced perplexing challenges from the neighboring empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey, plus persistent meddling in their affairs by West European powers. The battle for independence affected, and was affected by, such issues as Romania's quest for progress, its internal civil rights, and its relations with other Balkan nationalities. In tracing the complicated interaction of these elements, Frederick Kellogg explores the development of Romanian railroads and trade, Romanian anti-Semitism, and Balkan nationalism and Bulgarian revolutionary currents. Russia's war against Turkey and the subsequent peace agreements brought about constitutional change and territorial sacrifice for Romania, along with annexation between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea. Using sources cuffed from little-known Romanian and other European archives and libraries, Kellogg convincingly explains why and how the powers interacted with one another and with Romania, and how Romanian political leaders responded to provocations and opportunities throughout the momentous passage to independent statehood.
In this book, the author gives an edited version of the actual events of two nineteenth century pioneers, Overton Johnson and William H. Winter, exploring westward expansion. The book provides a colorful tale of the men's journey, as well as the two years spent in the West. The book also demonstrates the diversity among territories by describing Indian, American, English, and California settlements
Rural Reminiscences is a poignant record of one family's survival during depressed economic times. It also details the management of a highly diversified farm operation that was changing from horsepower on the hoof to under the hood. It explains and describes the operation of farm machinery powered by draft horses and the frustrations farmers experienced as they tried to adapt to the internal combustion engine.
While he served in the Army Corps of Engineers during World War II, William Sabel dutifully wrote home to his parents in Chicago every week. More than half a century later, five years' worth of correspondence is featured in Seeds of Hope: An Engineer's World War II Letters. Sabel was 25 years old, single, and living on a poultry farm in Marshall County, Indiana, when he was drafted into military service in April 1941. As an officer in the Army Corps of Engineers he traveled overseas in January 1943 and served in the South Pacific for three years. When he returned home in February 1946, Sabel discovered that his mother had saved all of his letters, totaling about 300, in a box. In the early 1990s, when he became interested in computers, Sabel decided to compile all of his letters chronologically, a process that took about 14 months.
This volume chronicles the media's role in reshaping American life during the tumultuous nineteenth century by focusing specifically on the presentation of race and gender in the newspapers and magazines of the time. The work is divided into four parts: Part I, "Race Reporting," details the various ways in which America's racial minorities were portrayed; Part II, "Fires of Discontent," looks at the moral and religious opposition to slavery by the abolitionist movement and demonstrates how that opposition was echoed by African Americans themselves; Part III, "The Cult of True Womanhood," examines the often disparate ways in which American women were portrayed in the national media as they assumed a greater role in public and private life; and Part IV, "Transcending the Boundaries," traces the lives of pioneering women journalists who sought to alter and expand their gender's participation in American life, showing how the changing role of women led to various journalistic attempts to depict and define women through sensationalistic news coverage of female crime stories.
Under the patronage of two south German nobles, Johann Lorenz Schmidt published an annotated translation of the Bible's opening books in 1735. The story of the controversy the work aroused and of its eventual suppression sheds light on many aspects of the eighteenth century, as well as the nature of censorship in our time.
Mitrovic's volume fills the gap in Balkan history by presenting an in-depth look at Serbia and its role in WWI. The Serbian experience was in fact of major significance in this war. In the interlocking development of the wartime continent, Serbia's plight is part of a European jigsaw. Also, the First World War was crucial as a stage in the construction of Serbian national mythology in the twentieth century.
The work analyzes the problems of nation building in the Central European region of Silesia during the years 1848-1918, which was influenced by Western European movements, especially German nationalism. The German ethnic model of nation building steeped in language and culture had been replicated in the case of Polish and Czech nationalisms. Silesia became a focal point as an area that was sought after by all three nations. Subsequent historiographies have treated Silesia and its population as a part of the three national histories.However, in reality, the German/Germanic-speaking Protestants began to identify themselves as Germans, but the Slavic-speaking Catholic Silesians did not fully recognize any of the three national influences and clung to their religious identity. Others developed specific ethnic identities connected to the ethnic groups of the Szlonzoks, the Slunzaks and the Morawecs. The groups remained prominent until the division of Silesia among Czechoslovakia, Germany, and Poland in 1919-22.
Anselm Verener Lee Guise was a young British mining engineer ap pointed to the post of assistant manager of a tin mine in the first d cades of the twentieth century in Bolivia. Six Years in Bolivia: The Adventures of a Mining Engineer (1922) was the result of his experiences and contact with the Bolivian landscape and people. His travel book underlines Guise's concerns with cultural, economic, and gender differences while presenting a personal transformation forced by his adaptation to new ways of life, which compelled him to perform activities far beyond his knowledge.
This volume contains three sections of essays which examine the role of commemoration and public celebrations in the creation of a national identity in Habsburg lands. It also seeks to engage historians of culture and of nationalism in other geographic fields as well as colleagues who work on Habsburg Central Europe, but write about nationalism from different vantage points. There is hope that this work will help generate a dialogue, especially with colleagues who live in the regions that were analyzed. Many of the authors consider the commemorations discussed in this volume from very different points of view, as they themselves are strongly rooted in a historical context that remains much closer to the nationalism we critique.
The history of the Habsburg Monarchy and Austria in the early modern period continues to capture the interest of many scholars. This collection of essays by twenty leading authorities from the United States, Austria, Germany, Great Britain, and the Netherlands focuses on the interplay between the Habsburg government and a multiplicity of social aspects. As a whole, State and Society in Early Modern Austria reexamines and sometimes debunks old views about the Habsburg Monarchy and provides insight into the current historical thinking on the early modern state. Moreover, this broad focus will help the reader understand the complex cultural heritage of the turbulent nationalities of East Central Europe.
Mohamoud's work considers the underlying causes for the breakdown of the state across both time and space. Time is considered across the triple history - the pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial processes. Space is used in the sense of taking the whole of Somalia as a unit of analysis. This approach enables the discovery of different structural crises over a period of time and examines these cumulative effects on the current upheavals in Somalia. Among the approaches, State Collapse and Post-Conflict Developments in Africa covers the constraints in the harsh material environment; the subsistence pastoral mode of existence; the colonial intervention and the subsequent division of the land into five parts; Cold War geopolitics; decades of armed struggles; and the post-colonial crisis of governance.
This multidisciplinary approach explores the historical antecedents and the dynamic process of Yugoslavia's violent dissolution. The volume, a compilation by distinguished scholars, examines issues broadening the understanding of the Yugoslav case, and also sheds light on how to deal with future episodes of state fragility and failure. Moreover, fifteen years after the Yugoslav crisis, the volume fills in the "blank spots" in the historical record.
Taking the University to the People will be of interest to agricultural historians and economists, rural sociologists, economic planners, political scientists, and the many involved in Extension Services. This commemorative volume celebrates the seventy-five year history of Cooperative Extension and briefly considers its potential role and continuing significance for the twenty-first century.
In her book, The Closed Hand: Images of the Japanese in Modern Peruvian Literature, Rebecca Riger Tsurumi captures the remarkable story behind the changing human landscape in Peru at the end of the nineteenth century when Japanese immigrants established what would become the second largest Japanese community in South America. She analyzes how non-Japanese Peruvian narrators unlock the unspoken attitudes and beliefs about the Japanese held by mainstream Peruvian society, as reflected in works written between l966 and 2006. Tsurumi explores how these Peruvian literary giants, including Mario Vargas Llosa, Miguel Gutiérrez, Alfredo Bryce Echenique, Carmen Ollé, Pilar Dughi, and Mario Bellatin, invented Japanese characters whose cultural differences fascinated and confounded their creators. She compares the outsider views of these Peruvian narrators with the insider perceptions of two Japanese Peruvian poets, José Watanabe and Doris Moromisato, who tap personal experiences and memories to create images that define their identities.   The book begins with a brief sociohistorical overview of Japan and Peru, describing the conditions in both nations that resulted in Japanese immigration to Peru and concluding in contemporary times. Tsurumi traces the evolution of the terms “Orient” and “Japanese/Oriental” and the depiction of Asians in Modernista poetry and in later works by Octavio Paz and Jorge Luis Borges. She analyzes the images of the Japanese portrayed in individual works of modern Peruvian narrative, comparing them with those created in Japanese Peruvian poetry. The book concludes with an appendix containing excerpts from Tsurumi’s interviews and correspondence in Spanish with writers and poets in Lima and Mexico City.
Like pearls threaded one-by-one to form a necklace, five women successively nurtured students on the Purdue University campus in America’s heartland during the 1930s to 1990s. Individually, each became a legendary dean of women or dean of students. Collectively, they wove a sisterhood of mutual support in their common—sometimes thwarted—pursuit of shared human rights and equality for all. Dorothy C. Stratton, Helen B. Schleman, M. Beverley Stone, Barbara I. Cook, and Betty M. Nelson opened new avenues for women and became conduits for change, fostering opportunities for all people. They were loved by students and revered by colleagues. The women also were respected throughout the United States as founding leaders of the Coast Guard Women’s Reserve (SPARs), frontrunners in the National Association of Women Deans and Counselors, and pivotal members of presidential committees in the Kennedy and Nixon administrations. While it is focused on changing attitudes on one college campus, The Deans’ Bible sheds light on cultural change in America as a whole, exploring how each of the deans participated nationally in the quest for equality. The story rolls through the “picture-perfect,” suppressive 1950s; explores the awakening 1960s of women’s liberation; describes the challenging 1980s, with AIDS and alcohol epidemics; and sails into the twenty-first century as a United States Coast Guard cutter is named after Dorothy Stratton and commissioned by First Lady Michelle Obama. As each woman succeeded the other, forming a five-dean friendship, they knitted their bond with a secret symbol—a Bible. Originally possessed by Purdue’s first part-time Dean of Women Carolyn Shoemaker, the Bible was handed down from dean to dean with favorite passages marked. The lowercase word “bible” is often used in connection with reference works or “guidebooks.” The Deans’ Bible is just that, brimming with stories of courageous women who led by example and lived their convictions.