History

While he served in the Army Corps of Engineers during World War II, William Sabel dutifully wrote home to his parents in Chicago every week. More than half a century later, five years' worth of correspondence is featured in Seeds of Hope: An Engineer's World War II Letters. Sabel was 25 years old, single, and living on a poultry farm in Marshall County, Indiana, when he was drafted into military service in April 1941. As an officer in the Army Corps of Engineers he traveled overseas in January 1943 and served in the South Pacific for three years. When he returned home in February 1946, Sabel discovered that his mother had saved all of his letters, totaling about 300, in a box. In the early 1990s, when he became interested in computers, Sabel decided to compile all of his letters chronologically, a process that took about 14 months.
This volume chronicles the media's role in reshaping American life during the tumultuous nineteenth century by focusing specifically on the presentation of race and gender in the newspapers and magazines of the time. The work is divided into four parts: Part I, "Race Reporting," details the various ways in which America's racial minorities were portrayed; Part II, "Fires of Discontent," looks at the moral and religious opposition to slavery by the abolitionist movement and demonstrates how that opposition was echoed by African Americans themselves; Part III, "The Cult of True Womanhood," examines the often disparate ways in which American women were portrayed in the national media as they assumed a greater role in public and private life; and Part IV, "Transcending the Boundaries," traces the lives of pioneering women journalists who sought to alter and expand their gender's participation in American life, showing how the changing role of women led to various journalistic attempts to depict and define women through sensationalistic news coverage of female crime stories.
Under the patronage of two south German nobles, Johann Lorenz Schmidt published an annotated translation of the Bible's opening books in 1735. The story of the controversy the work aroused and of its eventual suppression sheds light on many aspects of the eighteenth century, as well as the nature of censorship in our time.
Mitrovic's volume fills the gap in Balkan history by presenting an in-depth look at Serbia and its role in WWI. The Serbian experience was in fact of major significance in this war. In the interlocking development of the wartime continent, Serbia's plight is part of a European jigsaw. Also, the First World War was crucial as a stage in the construction of Serbian national mythology in the twentieth century.
The work analyzes the problems of nation building in the Central European region of Silesia during the years 1848-1918, which was influenced by Western European movements, especially German nationalism. The German ethnic model of nation building steeped in language and culture had been replicated in the case of Polish and Czech nationalisms. Silesia became a focal point as an area that was sought after by all three nations. Subsequent historiographies have treated Silesia and its population as a part of the three national histories.However, in reality, the German/Germanic-speaking Protestants began to identify themselves as Germans, but the Slavic-speaking Catholic Silesians did not fully recognize any of the three national influences and clung to their religious identity. Others developed specific ethnic identities connected to the ethnic groups of the Szlonzoks, the Slunzaks and the Morawecs. The groups remained prominent until the division of Silesia among Czechoslovakia, Germany, and Poland in 1919-22.
Anselm Verener Lee Guise was a young British mining engineer ap pointed to the post of assistant manager of a tin mine in the first d cades of the twentieth century in Bolivia. Six Years in Bolivia: The Adventures of a Mining Engineer (1922) was the result of his experiences and contact with the Bolivian landscape and people. His travel book underlines Guise's concerns with cultural, economic, and gender differences while presenting a personal transformation forced by his adaptation to new ways of life, which compelled him to perform activities far beyond his knowledge.
This volume contains three sections of essays which examine the role of commemoration and public celebrations in the creation of a national identity in Habsburg lands. It also seeks to engage historians of culture and of nationalism in other geographic fields as well as colleagues who work on Habsburg Central Europe, but write about nationalism from different vantage points. There is hope that this work will help generate a dialogue, especially with colleagues who live in the regions that were analyzed. Many of the authors consider the commemorations discussed in this volume from very different points of view, as they themselves are strongly rooted in a historical context that remains much closer to the nationalism we critique.
The history of the Habsburg Monarchy and Austria in the early modern period continues to capture the interest of many scholars. This collection of essays by twenty leading authorities from the United States, Austria, Germany, Great Britain, and the Netherlands focuses on the interplay between the Habsburg government and a multiplicity of social aspects. As a whole, State and Society in Early Modern Austria reexamines and sometimes debunks old views about the Habsburg Monarchy and provides insight into the current historical thinking on the early modern state. Moreover, this broad focus will help the reader understand the complex cultural heritage of the turbulent nationalities of East Central Europe.
Mohamoud's work considers the underlying causes for the breakdown of the state across both time and space. Time is considered across the triple history - the pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial processes. Space is used in the sense of taking the whole of Somalia as a unit of analysis. This approach enables the discovery of different structural crises over a period of time and examines these cumulative effects on the current upheavals in Somalia. Among the approaches, State Collapse and Post-Conflict Developments in Africa covers the constraints in the harsh material environment; the subsistence pastoral mode of existence; the colonial intervention and the subsequent division of the land into five parts; Cold War geopolitics; decades of armed struggles; and the post-colonial crisis of governance.
This multidisciplinary approach explores the historical antecedents and the dynamic process of Yugoslavia's violent dissolution. The volume, a compilation by distinguished scholars, examines issues broadening the understanding of the Yugoslav case, and also sheds light on how to deal with future episodes of state fragility and failure. Moreover, fifteen years after the Yugoslav crisis, the volume fills in the "blank spots" in the historical record.
Taking the University to the People will be of interest to agricultural historians and economists, rural sociologists, economic planners, political scientists, and the many involved in Extension Services. This commemorative volume celebrates the seventy-five year history of Cooperative Extension and briefly considers its potential role and continuing significance for the twenty-first century.
In her book, The Closed Hand: Images of the Japanese in Modern Peruvian Literature, Rebecca Riger Tsurumi captures the remarkable story behind the changing human landscape in Peru at the end of the nineteenth century when Japanese immigrants established what would become the second largest Japanese community in South America. She analyzes how non-Japanese Peruvian narrators unlock the unspoken attitudes and beliefs about the Japanese held by mainstream Peruvian society, as reflected in works written between l966 and 2006. Tsurumi explores how these Peruvian literary giants, including Mario Vargas Llosa, Miguel Gutiérrez, Alfredo Bryce Echenique, Carmen Ollé, Pilar Dughi, and Mario Bellatin, invented Japanese characters whose cultural differences fascinated and confounded their creators. She compares the outsider views of these Peruvian narrators with the insider perceptions of two Japanese Peruvian poets, José Watanabe and Doris Moromisato, who tap personal experiences and memories to create images that define their identities.   The book begins with a brief sociohistorical overview of Japan and Peru, describing the conditions in both nations that resulted in Japanese immigration to Peru and concluding in contemporary times. Tsurumi traces the evolution of the terms “Orient” and “Japanese/Oriental” and the depiction of Asians in Modernista poetry and in later works by Octavio Paz and Jorge Luis Borges. She analyzes the images of the Japanese portrayed in individual works of modern Peruvian narrative, comparing them with those created in Japanese Peruvian poetry. The book concludes with an appendix containing excerpts from Tsurumi’s interviews and correspondence in Spanish with writers and poets in Lima and Mexico City.
Like pearls threaded one-by-one to form a necklace, five women successively nurtured students on the Purdue University campus in America’s heartland during the 1930s to 1990s. Individually, each became a legendary dean of women or dean of students. Collectively, they wove a sisterhood of mutual support in their common—sometimes thwarted—pursuit of shared human rights and equality for all. Dorothy C. Stratton, Helen B. Schleman, M. Beverley Stone, Barbara I. Cook, and Betty M. Nelson opened new avenues for women and became conduits for change, fostering opportunities for all people. They were loved by students and revered by colleagues. The women also were respected throughout the United States as founding leaders of the Coast Guard Women’s Reserve (SPARs), frontrunners in the National Association of Women Deans and Counselors, and pivotal members of presidential committees in the Kennedy and Nixon administrations. While it is focused on changing attitudes on one college campus, The Deans’ Bible sheds light on cultural change in America as a whole, exploring how each of the deans participated nationally in the quest for equality. The story rolls through the “picture-perfect,” suppressive 1950s; explores the awakening 1960s of women’s liberation; describes the challenging 1980s, with AIDS and alcohol epidemics; and sails into the twenty-first century as a United States Coast Guard cutter is named after Dorothy Stratton and commissioned by First Lady Michelle Obama. As each woman succeeded the other, forming a five-dean friendship, they knitted their bond with a secret symbol—a Bible. Originally possessed by Purdue’s first part-time Dean of Women Carolyn Shoemaker, the Bible was handed down from dean to dean with favorite passages marked. The lowercase word “bible” is often used in connection with reference works or “guidebooks.” The Deans’ Bible is just that, brimming with stories of courageous women who led by example and lived their convictions.
From yesterday’s gingham girls to today’s Farmer Janes, The Midwest Farmer’s Daughter unearths the untold history and renewed cultural currency of an American icon at a time when fully 30 percent of new farms in the US are woman-owned. From farm women bloggers, to “back-to-the-land” homesteaders and seed-savers, to rural graphic novelists and, ultimately, to the seven generations of farm daughters who have animated his own family since before the Civil War, the author travels across the region to shine new documentary light on this seedbed for American virtue, energy, and ingenuity.   Packed with many memorable interviews, print artifacts, and historic images, this groundbreaking documentary history describes the centuries-long reiteration and reinterpretation of agrarian daughters in the field, over the airwaves, on the printed page, and in the court of public opinion. Offering a sweeping cultural and social history, it ranges widely and well from Jane Smiley’s Pulitzer Prize-winning A Thousand Acres to Laura Ingalls Wilder’s proto-feminist commentaries for the Missouri Ruralist; from the critical importance of rural girls and young women to time-honored organizations such as the Farm Bureau, 4-H, and FFA to the entrepreneurial role today’s female agriculturalists and sustainable farm advocates play in farmers’ markets, urban farms, and community-supported agriculture. For all those whose lives have been graced by the enduring strength of this regional and national touchstone, The Midwest Farmer’s Daughter offers a one-of-a-kind scholarly examination and contemporary appreciation.   Listen to an interview with the author by clicking here. The interview with WBAA, Indiana's oldest operating radio station and an NPR affiliate, was first broadcast on August 23, 2012.  
In the late spring of 1718 near the village of Požarevac (German Passarowitz) in northern Serbia, freshly conquered by Habsburg forces, three delegations representing the Holy Roman Emperor, Ottoman Sultan, and the Republic of Venice gathered to end the conflict that had begun three and a half years earlier. The fighting had spread throughout southeastern Europe, from Hungary to the southernmost tip of the Peloponnese. The peace redrew the map of the Balkans, extending the reach of Habsburg power, all but expelling Venice from the Greek mainland, and laying the foundations for Ottoman revitalization during the Tulip period. In this volume, twenty specialists analyze the military background to and political context of the peace congress and treaty. They assess the immediate significance of the Peace of Passarowitz and its longer term influence on the society, demography, culture, and economy of central Europe.
In late eighteenth-century Vienna a remarkable coterie of five aristocratic women, popularly known as the “five princesses,” achieved social preeminence and acclaim as close associates of the reforming Habsburg Emperor Joseph II. They were Princess Maria Josepha Clary (1728–1801); Princess Maria Sidonia Kinsky (1729–1815); Princess Maria Leopoldine Liechtenstein (1733–1809); Countess, subsequently Princess, Maria Leopoldine Kaunitz (1741–1795); and Princess Maria Eleonore Liechtenstein (1745–1812).   The group assumed a stable form by 1772, by which time Joseph II and two of his closest male associates, Field Marshal Franz Moritz Lacy and Count Franz Xavier Orsini-Rosenberg, had become accepted members of the circle as well. During the Viennese social season, members of the group made their way several times each week to the inner city palace of one of the “Dames,” as members of the group called themselves. During the summer months, when the women dispersed to visit country estates in Bohemia and Moravia or to travel, group members corresponded regularly.   These were exciting, restless years in the Habsburg monarchy, as reforms were implemented to help the monarchy withstand threats to its stability and international stature from without and within. With assured access to the emperor and his closest advisors, the Dames enjoyed both a unique view of events and a chance to participate in public affairs (albeit informally and discreetly) as steadfast, acknowledged friends of the emperor. Through analysis of the correspondence of these women and of the published and unpublished commentaries of their contemporaries, this study scrutinizes the activities of this select group of women during the co-regency period (1765–1780) when Joseph shared responsibility with his mother, Maria Theresia, and during Joseph’s decade as sole ruler (1780–1790) after Maria Theresia’s death—years during which the women enjoyed their special position.  
This volume provides an historical overview of the relationship between Germany, German speakers, and successive waves of German colonists with their eastern neighbors over the period from the Middle Ages to the present. The collection of essays by 28 leading experts includes the most recent scholarship together with fresh perspectives on the subject.  
The Memory Factory introduces an English-speaking public to the significant women artists of Vienna at the turn of the twentieth century, each chosen for her aesthetic innovations and participation in public exhibitions. These women played important public roles as exhibiting artists, both individually and in collectives, but this history has been silenced over time. Their stories show that the city of Vienna was contradictory and cosmopolitan: despite men-only policies in its main art institutions, it offered a myriad of unexpected ways for women artists to forge successful public careers. Women artists came from the provinces, Russia, and Germany to participate in its vibrant art scene. However, and especially because so many of the artists were Jewish, their contributions were actively obscured beginning in the late 1930s. Many had to flee Austria, losing their studios and lifework in the process. Some were killed in concentration camps.   Along with the stories of individual women artists, the author reconstructs the history of separate women artists’ associations and their exhibitions. Chapters covering the careers of Tina Blau, Elena Luksch-Makowsky, Bronica Koller, Helene Funke, and Teresa Ries (among others) point to a more integrated and cosmopolitan art world than previously thought; one where women became part of the avant-garde, accepted and even highlighted in major exhibitions at the Secession and with the Klimt group.   “This is an excellent addition to the literature on fin-de-sicle Vienna, well-researched and well-argued. It highlights little-known artists and situates them in a novel interpretation of women’s roles in the art world. The author challenges dominant tropes of feminist historiography and thus sheds new light on twentieth-century art history and historiography.” —Michael Gubser,  James Madison University
A biography of noted businessman John Purdue (1802-1876), whose donations of time and money led to the founding of Indiana's land grant university-Purdue University-in 1869. Purdue also contributed to economically important bridge, railroad, and cemetery construction, the existence of Lafayette Savings Bank and the Battle Ground Collegiate Institute, cattle farming, Lafayette's public school system, and countless other worthy enterprises. To date there has been no published full length study of Mr. Purdue's life and work beyond casual street?talk that portrayed Purdue as a difficult individual with whom to work. This biography incorporates research efforts by previous writers with facts gleaned from newspaper coverage, official documents, and a few rare samples of Mr. Purdue's letters. In this way, a complete picture of the man and myth is generated.
Ben Hecht had seen his share of death-row psychopaths, crooked ward bosses, and Capone gun thugs by the time he had come of age as a crime reporter in gangland Chicago. His grim experience with what he called “the soul of man” gave him a kind of uncanny foresight a decade later, when a loose cannon named Adolf Hitler began to rise to power in central Europe.   In 1932, Hecht solidified his legend as "the Shakespeare of Hollywood" with his thriller Scarface, the Howard Hughes epic considered the gangster movie to end all gangster movies. But Hecht rebelled against his Jewish bosses at the movie studios when they refused to make films about the Nazi menace. Leveraging his talents and celebrity connections to orchestrate a spectacular one-man publicity campaign, he mobilized pressure on the Roosevelt administration for an Allied plan to rescue Europe’s Jews. Then after the war, Hecht became notorious, embracing the labels “gangster” and “terrorist” in partnering with the mobster Mickey Cohen to smuggle weapons to Palestine in the fight for a Jewish state.   The Notorious Ben Hecht: Iconoclastic Writer and Militant Zionist is a biography of a great twentieth century writer that treats his activism during the 1940s as the central drama of his life. It details the story of how Hecht earned admiration as a humanitarian and vilification as an extremist at this pivotal moment in history, about the origins of his beliefs in his varied experiences in American media, and about the consequences.   Who else but Hecht could have drawn the admiration of Ezra Pound, clowned around with Harpo Marx, written Notorious and Spellbound with Alfred Hitchcock, launched Marlon Brando’s career, ghosted Marilyn Monroe’s memoirs, hosted Jack Kerouac and Salvador Dalí on his television talk show, and plotted revolt with Menachem Begin? Any lover of modern history who follows this journey through the worlds of gangsters, reporters, Jazz Age artists, Hollywood stars, movie moguls, political radicals, and guerrilla fighters will never look at the twentieth century in the same way again.
These essays raise virtually all of the themes of (Western) rural history, and can easily be a spur to new research
Concurrent with the dawn of multiparty politics in 1990, Mirko Pejanovic emerged in Bosnia-Herzegovina as the leader of the Socialist Alliance. His organization was in charge of implementing policies of the League of Communists.This memoir, beginning in 1990, tells the story of his experiences as a public and political leader. Through Bosnian Eyes covers a decade of Pejanovic's service. His role in public life was characterized by an unwavering commitment to national equality and strong convictions regarding the nature of a multiethnic Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a participant in the most important political events of the time, and as a colleague of every major political leader, the author conveys a personal history that is memorable for its insights into the neglected world of Serbs who remained loyal to the nation in trying times.
In 1889, California orange growers faced a devastating attack of cottony-cushion scale. In response, scientists from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) imported the Australian vedalia beetle, which preyed on the insect that caused the scale. In less than a year the vedalia beetle eliminated the pest, and a standard for biological control was established. The predation of pests by other insects is but one component of Richard Sawyer's To Make a Spotless Orange. The focus of the work is biological pest control in the California citrus industry, and through this discussion other themes emerge. The creation of consumer demand for California oranges, the maturation of the science of entomology, and the technology of biological control contribute to the story of managing agricultural pests in the citrus industry. Sawyer begins by assessing the emergence of the California citrus industry. According to Sawyer, this group of producers is uniquely inclined to accept nontraditional production methods, such as biological control. The success of the vedalia beetle increased their expectations for additional triumphs. Entomologists from the federal government and the state of California tempered the enthusiasm of producers and fellow scientists to prevent the accidental introduction of harmful insects. The need to produce a spotless orange is a model of producers' creating a demand for a product. A bright, shiny orange free of blemishes appealed visually to the consumer, but citrus growers wished to increase the demand for their product by other means. Sawyer cites the 1908 "Oranges for Health, California for Wealth" campaign in Iowa as an example of cooperation between the California Fruit Growers Exchange (renamed Sunkist Growers in 1952) and the Southern Pacific Railroad to encourage citrus consumption and emigration to California (p. 33). The consumption of oranges by Iowans increased 50 percent that year, and many Midwesterners did relocate to the West. Citrus growers believed in the gospel of the spotless orange, and growers employed chemical and biological means to receive the premium price for blemish-free fruit. Anyone who challenged the high cosmetic standards for the oranges was denounced. Sawyer emphasizes the importance of the individual in establishing a credible biological control program in California through his analysis of the role of Harry Smith, the first director of the California Department of Biological Control in Riverside. Smith cultivated and received the respect of the USDA administrators, local officials, and producers. After he retired in [End Page 801] 1951, succeeding administrators could not maintain the consensus he had established. Academic politics weakened the department, and factions at Berkeley and Riverside oversaw the dissolution of the only state department of biological control. To Make a Spotless Orange is organized chronologically, and the narrative is easily followed. Sawyer succinctly describes the shifting definition of biological control and the ongoing successes and failures of the work. Entomologists first restricted biological control to only the introduction of insects to combat pests. By the 1940s, however, biological control expanded to combating weeds. The later introduction of sterile pests is recognized as another means of biological control. Sawyer also considers the tension and cooperation between federal, state, and local agencies as well as the dynamic between private and university interests. He addresses American cultural history, such as the social climate after World War II, and the reaction to the intensified use of chemical applications following the 1962 publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. An extended treatment of Carson's book would have enhanced this book. Sawyer argues that California agricultural scientists dedicated themselves to their perceived constituents, the citrus growers. This assertion requires additional development. Conversely, as entomologists investigated biological control, they found that producers selected cheaper and more effective chemical applications. Agricultural scientists sometimes neglected the effect of chemicals on public health, which led to criticism that the researchers served as agents of agribusiness. Sawyer contends that biological control developed through the support of agribusiness, and that the story is more complex than a morality tale against intensive fruit production. The work concludes with a reassessment of biological control and its relationship to agriculture. Though advocates for biological control continue to argue for its use, research universities look toward pure science rather than applications. The "juncture of pure and applied science" employed by agricultural scientists is no longer in balance, and many institutions no longer value the pure science outcomes discovered through applied science (p. 67). Sawyer's work is a valuable contribution to the history of American technology and agriculture in the twentieth century, and it serves as a useful argument for applied science
Examines the economic development of the United States from colonial times through the mid-Twentieth Century and uses elementary economic analysis as a tool for illuminating historical events and their economic origins and consequences. It will consider how the economy has grown over time as well as how and why the structure of the American economy has changed over time. Throughout American economic history various public and private policies have at times been successful and at other times failed. Accordingly the prevailing theme of economic history can be expressed as the idea that any particular policy is not destined to succeed or fail but rather that there are always viable choices. Indeed, economic history is a record of those choices and their effects. The aim of this course is not to provide you with conventional and one-dimensional interpretations but rather to offer you alternative economic views of historical events. Ideally this course will help you understand and apply economic analysis to historical events as well as to ascertain probable implications for current and future policies.
Touched by the Dragon details wartime accounts of average servicemen and women-some heroic, some frightening, some amusing, some nearly unbelievable-extracted from interviews with Vietnam War veterans residing in Newport County, Rhode Island. The work is a historical compendium of fascinating and compelling stories woven together in a theme format. What makes this book truly unique, however, is its absence of literary pretentiousness. Relating oral accounts, the veterans speak in a no-nonsense, matter-of-fact way. As seen through the eyes of the veterans, the stories include first-person experiences of infantry soldiers, a flight officer, a medic, a nurse, a combat engineer, an intelligence soldier, and various support personnel. Personalities emerge gradually as the veterans discuss their pre war days, their training and preparation for Vietnam, and their actual in-country experiences. The stories speak of fear and survival: the paranoia of not knowing who or where the enemy was; the bullets, rockets, and mortars that could mangle a body or snuff out a life in a instant; and going home with a CMH--not the Congressional Medal of Honor, but a Casket with Metal Handles. The veterans also speak friendships and simple acts of kindness. But more importantly, they speak of healing-both physical and mental.