History

This multidisciplinary approach explores the historical antecedents and the dynamic process of Yugoslavia's violent dissolution. The volume, a compilation by distinguished scholars, examines issues broadening the understanding of the Yugoslav case, and also sheds light on how to deal with future episodes of state fragility and failure. Moreover, fifteen years after the Yugoslav crisis, the volume fills in the "blank spots" in the historical record.
Taking the University to the People will be of interest to agricultural historians and economists, rural sociologists, economic planners, political scientists, and the many involved in Extension Services. This commemorative volume celebrates the seventy-five year history of Cooperative Extension and briefly considers its potential role and continuing significance for the twenty-first century.
In her book, The Closed Hand: Images of the Japanese in Modern Peruvian Literature, Rebecca Riger Tsurumi captures the remarkable story behind the changing human landscape in Peru at the end of the nineteenth century when Japanese immigrants established what would become the second largest Japanese community in South America. She analyzes how non-Japanese Peruvian narrators unlock the unspoken attitudes and beliefs about the Japanese held by mainstream Peruvian society, as reflected in works written between l966 and 2006. Tsurumi explores how these Peruvian literary giants, including Mario Vargas Llosa, Miguel Gutiérrez, Alfredo Bryce Echenique, Carmen Ollé, Pilar Dughi, and Mario Bellatin, invented Japanese characters whose cultural differences fascinated and confounded their creators. She compares the outsider views of these Peruvian narrators with the insider perceptions of two Japanese Peruvian poets, José Watanabe and Doris Moromisato, who tap personal experiences and memories to create images that define their identities.   The book begins with a brief sociohistorical overview of Japan and Peru, describing the conditions in both nations that resulted in Japanese immigration to Peru and concluding in contemporary times. Tsurumi traces the evolution of the terms “Orient” and “Japanese/Oriental” and the depiction of Asians in Modernista poetry and in later works by Octavio Paz and Jorge Luis Borges. She analyzes the images of the Japanese portrayed in individual works of modern Peruvian narrative, comparing them with those created in Japanese Peruvian poetry. The book concludes with an appendix containing excerpts from Tsurumi’s interviews and correspondence in Spanish with writers and poets in Lima and Mexico City.
Like pearls threaded one-by-one to form a necklace, five women successively nurtured students on the Purdue University campus in America’s heartland during the 1930s to 1990s. Individually, each became a legendary dean of women or dean of students. Collectively, they wove a sisterhood of mutual support in their common—sometimes thwarted—pursuit of shared human rights and equality for all. Dorothy C. Stratton, Helen B. Schleman, M. Beverley Stone, Barbara I. Cook, and Betty M. Nelson opened new avenues for women and became conduits for change, fostering opportunities for all people. They were loved by students and revered by colleagues. The women also were respected throughout the United States as founding leaders of the Coast Guard Women’s Reserve (SPARs), frontrunners in the National Association of Women Deans and Counselors, and pivotal members of presidential committees in the Kennedy and Nixon administrations. While it is focused on changing attitudes on one college campus, The Deans’ Bible sheds light on cultural change in America as a whole, exploring how each of the deans participated nationally in the quest for equality. The story rolls through the “picture-perfect,” suppressive 1950s; explores the awakening 1960s of women’s liberation; describes the challenging 1980s, with AIDS and alcohol epidemics; and sails into the twenty-first century as a United States Coast Guard cutter is named after Dorothy Stratton and commissioned by First Lady Michelle Obama. As each woman succeeded the other, forming a five-dean friendship, they knitted their bond with a secret symbol—a Bible. Originally possessed by Purdue’s first part-time Dean of Women Carolyn Shoemaker, the Bible was handed down from dean to dean with favorite passages marked. The lowercase word “bible” is often used in connection with reference works or “guidebooks.” The Deans’ Bible is just that, brimming with stories of courageous women who led by example and lived their convictions.
From yesterday’s gingham girls to today’s Farmer Janes, The Midwest Farmer’s Daughter unearths the untold history and renewed cultural currency of an American icon at a time when fully 30 percent of new farms in the US are woman-owned. From farm women bloggers, to “back-to-the-land” homesteaders and seed-savers, to rural graphic novelists and, ultimately, to the seven generations of farm daughters who have animated his own family since before the Civil War, the author travels across the region to shine new documentary light on this seedbed for American virtue, energy, and ingenuity.   Packed with many memorable interviews, print artifacts, and historic images, this groundbreaking documentary history describes the centuries-long reiteration and reinterpretation of agrarian daughters in the field, over the airwaves, on the printed page, and in the court of public opinion. Offering a sweeping cultural and social history, it ranges widely and well from Jane Smiley’s Pulitzer Prize-winning A Thousand Acres to Laura Ingalls Wilder’s proto-feminist commentaries for the Missouri Ruralist; from the critical importance of rural girls and young women to time-honored organizations such as the Farm Bureau, 4-H, and FFA to the entrepreneurial role today’s female agriculturalists and sustainable farm advocates play in farmers’ markets, urban farms, and community-supported agriculture. For all those whose lives have been graced by the enduring strength of this regional and national touchstone, The Midwest Farmer’s Daughter offers a one-of-a-kind scholarly examination and contemporary appreciation.   Listen to an interview with the author by clicking here. The interview with WBAA, Indiana's oldest operating radio station and an NPR affiliate, was first broadcast on August 23, 2012.  
In the late spring of 1718 near the village of Požarevac (German Passarowitz) in northern Serbia, freshly conquered by Habsburg forces, three delegations representing the Holy Roman Emperor, Ottoman Sultan, and the Republic of Venice gathered to end the conflict that had begun three and a half years earlier. The fighting had spread throughout southeastern Europe, from Hungary to the southernmost tip of the Peloponnese. The peace redrew the map of the Balkans, extending the reach of Habsburg power, all but expelling Venice from the Greek mainland, and laying the foundations for Ottoman revitalization during the Tulip period. In this volume, twenty specialists analyze the military background to and political context of the peace congress and treaty. They assess the immediate significance of the Peace of Passarowitz and its longer term influence on the society, demography, culture, and economy of central Europe.
In late eighteenth-century Vienna a remarkable coterie of five aristocratic women, popularly known as the “five princesses,” achieved social preeminence and acclaim as close associates of the reforming Habsburg Emperor Joseph II. They were Princess Maria Josepha Clary (1728–1801); Princess Maria Sidonia Kinsky (1729–1815); Princess Maria Leopoldine Liechtenstein (1733–1809); Countess, subsequently Princess, Maria Leopoldine Kaunitz (1741–1795); and Princess Maria Eleonore Liechtenstein (1745–1812).   The group assumed a stable form by 1772, by which time Joseph II and two of his closest male associates, Field Marshal Franz Moritz Lacy and Count Franz Xavier Orsini-Rosenberg, had become accepted members of the circle as well. During the Viennese social season, members of the group made their way several times each week to the inner city palace of one of the “Dames,” as members of the group called themselves. During the summer months, when the women dispersed to visit country estates in Bohemia and Moravia or to travel, group members corresponded regularly.   These were exciting, restless years in the Habsburg monarchy, as reforms were implemented to help the monarchy withstand threats to its stability and international stature from without and within. With assured access to the emperor and his closest advisors, the Dames enjoyed both a unique view of events and a chance to participate in public affairs (albeit informally and discreetly) as steadfast, acknowledged friends of the emperor. Through analysis of the correspondence of these women and of the published and unpublished commentaries of their contemporaries, this study scrutinizes the activities of this select group of women during the co-regency period (1765–1780) when Joseph shared responsibility with his mother, Maria Theresia, and during Joseph’s decade as sole ruler (1780–1790) after Maria Theresia’s death—years during which the women enjoyed their special position.  
This volume provides an historical overview of the relationship between Germany, German speakers, and successive waves of German colonists with their eastern neighbors over the period from the Middle Ages to the present. The collection of essays by 28 leading experts includes the most recent scholarship together with fresh perspectives on the subject.  
The Memory Factory introduces an English-speaking public to the significant women artists of Vienna at the turn of the twentieth century, each chosen for her aesthetic innovations and participation in public exhibitions. These women played important public roles as exhibiting artists, both individually and in collectives, but this history has been silenced over time. Their stories show that the city of Vienna was contradictory and cosmopolitan: despite men-only policies in its main art institutions, it offered a myriad of unexpected ways for women artists to forge successful public careers. Women artists came from the provinces, Russia, and Germany to participate in its vibrant art scene. However, and especially because so many of the artists were Jewish, their contributions were actively obscured beginning in the late 1930s. Many had to flee Austria, losing their studios and lifework in the process. Some were killed in concentration camps.   Along with the stories of individual women artists, the author reconstructs the history of separate women artists’ associations and their exhibitions. Chapters covering the careers of Tina Blau, Elena Luksch-Makowsky, Bronica Koller, Helene Funke, and Teresa Ries (among others) point to a more integrated and cosmopolitan art world than previously thought; one where women became part of the avant-garde, accepted and even highlighted in major exhibitions at the Secession and with the Klimt group.   “This is an excellent addition to the literature on fin-de-sicle Vienna, well-researched and well-argued. It highlights little-known artists and situates them in a novel interpretation of women’s roles in the art world. The author challenges dominant tropes of feminist historiography and thus sheds new light on twentieth-century art history and historiography.” —Michael Gubser,  James Madison University
A biography of noted businessman John Purdue (1802-1876), whose donations of time and money led to the founding of Indiana's land grant university-Purdue University-in 1869. Purdue also contributed to economically important bridge, railroad, and cemetery construction, the existence of Lafayette Savings Bank and the Battle Ground Collegiate Institute, cattle farming, Lafayette's public school system, and countless other worthy enterprises. To date there has been no published full length study of Mr. Purdue's life and work beyond casual street?talk that portrayed Purdue as a difficult individual with whom to work. This biography incorporates research efforts by previous writers with facts gleaned from newspaper coverage, official documents, and a few rare samples of Mr. Purdue's letters. In this way, a complete picture of the man and myth is generated.
Ben Hecht had seen his share of death-row psychopaths, crooked ward bosses, and Capone gun thugs by the time he had come of age as a crime reporter in gangland Chicago. His grim experience with what he called “the soul of man” gave him a kind of uncanny foresight a decade later, when a loose cannon named Adolf Hitler began to rise to power in central Europe. In 1932, Hecht solidified his legend as "the Shakespeare of Hollywood" with his thriller Scarface, the Howard Hughes epic considered the gangster movie to end all gangster movies. But Hecht rebelled against his Jewish bosses at the movie studios when they refused to make films about the Nazi menace. Leveraging his talents and celebrity connections to orchestrate a spectacular one-man publicity campaign, he mobilized pressure on the Roosevelt administration for an Allied plan to rescue Europe’s Jews. Then after the war, Hecht became notorious, embracing the labels “gangster” and “terrorist” in partnering with the mobster Mickey Cohen to smuggle weapons to Palestine in the fight for a Jewish state. The Notorious Ben Hecht: Iconoclastic Writer and Militant Zionist is a biography of a great twentieth century writer that treats his activism during the 1940s as the central drama of his life. It details the story of how Hecht earned admiration as a humanitarian and vilification as an extremist at this pivotal moment in history, about the origins of his beliefs in his varied experiences in American media, and about the consequences. Who else but Hecht could have drawn the admiration of Ezra Pound, clowned around with Harpo Marx, written Notorious! and Spellbound with Alfred Hitchcock, launched Marlon Brando’s career, ghosted Marilyn Monroe’s memoirs, hosted Jack Kerouac and Salvador Dalí on his television talk show, and plotted revolt with Menachem Begin? Any lover of modern history who follows this journey through the worlds of gangsters, reporters, Jazz Age artists, Hollywood stars, movie moguls, political radicals, and guerrilla fighters will never look at the twentieth century in the same way again.
These essays raise virtually all of the themes of (Western) rural history, and can easily be a spur to new research
Concurrent with the dawn of multiparty politics in 1990, Mirko Pejanovic emerged in Bosnia-Herzegovina as the leader of the Socialist Alliance. His organization was in charge of implementing policies of the League of Communists.This memoir, beginning in 1990, tells the story of his experiences as a public and political leader. Through Bosnian Eyes covers a decade of Pejanovic's service. His role in public life was characterized by an unwavering commitment to national equality and strong convictions regarding the nature of a multiethnic Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a participant in the most important political events of the time, and as a colleague of every major political leader, the author conveys a personal history that is memorable for its insights into the neglected world of Serbs who remained loyal to the nation in trying times.
In 1889, California orange growers faced a devastating attack of cottony-cushion scale. In response, scientists from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) imported the Australian vedalia beetle, which preyed on the insect that caused the scale. In less than a year the vedalia beetle eliminated the pest, and a standard for biological control was established. The predation of pests by other insects is but one component of Richard Sawyer's To Make a Spotless Orange. The focus of the work is biological pest control in the California citrus industry, and through this discussion other themes emerge. The creation of consumer demand for California oranges, the maturation of the science of entomology, and the technology of biological control contribute to the story of managing agricultural pests in the citrus industry. Sawyer begins by assessing the emergence of the California citrus industry. According to Sawyer, this group of producers is uniquely inclined to accept nontraditional production methods, such as biological control. The success of the vedalia beetle increased their expectations for additional triumphs. Entomologists from the federal government and the state of California tempered the enthusiasm of producers and fellow scientists to prevent the accidental introduction of harmful insects. The need to produce a spotless orange is a model of producers' creating a demand for a product. A bright, shiny orange free of blemishes appealed visually to the consumer, but citrus growers wished to increase the demand for their product by other means. Sawyer cites the 1908 "Oranges for Health, California for Wealth" campaign in Iowa as an example of cooperation between the California Fruit Growers Exchange (renamed Sunkist Growers in 1952) and the Southern Pacific Railroad to encourage citrus consumption and emigration to California (p. 33). The consumption of oranges by Iowans increased 50 percent that year, and many Midwesterners did relocate to the West. Citrus growers believed in the gospel of the spotless orange, and growers employed chemical and biological means to receive the premium price for blemish-free fruit. Anyone who challenged the high cosmetic standards for the oranges was denounced. Sawyer emphasizes the importance of the individual in establishing a credible biological control program in California through his analysis of the role of Harry Smith, the first director of the California Department of Biological Control in Riverside. Smith cultivated and received the respect of the USDA administrators, local officials, and producers. After he retired in [End Page 801] 1951, succeeding administrators could not maintain the consensus he had established. Academic politics weakened the department, and factions at Berkeley and Riverside oversaw the dissolution of the only state department of biological control. To Make a Spotless Orange is organized chronologically, and the narrative is easily followed. Sawyer succinctly describes the shifting definition of biological control and the ongoing successes and failures of the work. Entomologists first restricted biological control to only the introduction of insects to combat pests. By the 1940s, however, biological control expanded to combating weeds. The later introduction of sterile pests is recognized as another means of biological control. Sawyer also considers the tension and cooperation between federal, state, and local agencies as well as the dynamic between private and university interests. He addresses American cultural history, such as the social climate after World War II, and the reaction to the intensified use of chemical applications following the 1962 publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. An extended treatment of Carson's book would have enhanced this book. Sawyer argues that California agricultural scientists dedicated themselves to their perceived constituents, the citrus growers. This assertion requires additional development. Conversely, as entomologists investigated biological control, they found that producers selected cheaper and more effective chemical applications. Agricultural scientists sometimes neglected the effect of chemicals on public health, which led to criticism that the researchers served as agents of agribusiness. Sawyer contends that biological control developed through the support of agribusiness, and that the story is more complex than a morality tale against intensive fruit production. The work concludes with a reassessment of biological control and its relationship to agriculture. Though advocates for biological control continue to argue for its use, research universities look toward pure science rather than applications. The "juncture of pure and applied science" employed by agricultural scientists is no longer in balance, and many institutions no longer value the pure science outcomes discovered through applied science (p. 67). Sawyer's work is a valuable contribution to the history of American technology and agriculture in the twentieth century, and it serves as a useful argument for applied science
Examines the economic development of the United States from colonial times through the mid-Twentieth Century and uses elementary economic analysis as a tool for illuminating historical events and their economic origins and consequences. It will consider how the economy has grown over time as well as how and why the structure of the American economy has changed over time. Throughout American economic history various public and private policies have at times been successful and at other times failed. Accordingly the prevailing theme of economic history can be expressed as the idea that any particular policy is not destined to succeed or fail but rather that there are always viable choices. Indeed, economic history is a record of those choices and their effects. The aim of this course is not to provide you with conventional and one-dimensional interpretations but rather to offer you alternative economic views of historical events. Ideally this course will help you understand and apply economic analysis to historical events as well as to ascertain probable implications for current and future policies.
Touched by the Dragon details wartime accounts of average servicemen and women-some heroic, some frightening, some amusing, some nearly unbelievable-extracted from interviews with Vietnam War veterans residing in Newport County, Rhode Island. The work is a historical compendium of fascinating and compelling stories woven together in a theme format. What makes this book truly unique, however, is its absence of literary pretentiousness. Relating oral accounts, the veterans speak in a no-nonsense, matter-of-fact way. As seen through the eyes of the veterans, the stories include first-person experiences of infantry soldiers, a flight officer, a medic, a nurse, a combat engineer, an intelligence soldier, and various support personnel. Personalities emerge gradually as the veterans discuss their pre war days, their training and preparation for Vietnam, and their actual in-country experiences. The stories speak of fear and survival: the paranoia of not knowing who or where the enemy was; the bullets, rockets, and mortars that could mangle a body or snuff out a life in a instant; and going home with a CMH--not the Congressional Medal of Honor, but a Casket with Metal Handles. The veterans also speak friendships and simple acts of kindness. But more importantly, they speak of healing-both physical and mental.
Back in print for the first time in over a century, the real heart and soul of the eldest Henry Wallace is revealed in his open letters to America's farm families. These homespun, secular epistles show that Wallace never lost sight of his roots even as he hobnobbed with U.S. Presidents from Teddy Roosevelt to Woodrow Wilson, anchored the prestigious Country Life Commission, and edited the most famous agricultural magazine of its day, Wallaces' Farmer. Who better to yoke the sacred, agrarian arts of stewardship, husbandry, and parenting than writer-philosopher-farmer-conservationist-minister-educator-public benefactor extraordinaire Uncle Henry Wallace, the man who planted the seeds of honorable public service in his own world-famous son and grandson, Secretary of Agriculture Henry C. Wallace and Vice President and Presidential candidate Henry A. Wallace, respectively.
Henry C. Wallace was secretary of agriculture, Henry A. Wallace was secretary of agriculture and vice-president to Franklin D. Roosevelt. But 'Uncle Henry' Wallace, perhaps the least known of the Henry Wallaces, was the patriarch of the Wallace family in Iowa and a pivotal figure in American agricultural history. In this documentary profile, Richard S. Kirkendall has compiled material from Uncle Henry's voluminous writings to create a vivid portrait of the man who had a hand in many of the key changes in farming from 1880 to 1920
These four essays by Howard Jones, R. J. M. Blackett, Thomas Schoonover, and James M. McPherson reconsider why the Confederacy never received the foreign aid that it counted on, and trace the war's impact upon European and Latin nations and dependencies. The book provides fresh perspectives regarding Britain's refusal to recognize the Confederacy, the role abroad of pro-Union African-American lecturers, French emperor Napoleon III's intervention in Mexico, and the Civil War's meaning to peoples all over the world.
Rebecca Reed and Maria Monk may not be well-known authors today, but these women were publishing sensations in nineteenth-century America. Their lurid tales of life in two North American convents, one in Charlestown, Massachusetts, and the other in Montreal, Canada, sold more than one-half million copies. Reed escaped from the Ursuline convent in Charlestown in 1832. Her dramatic renditions of Roman Catholic ritual practice helped spark a night of violence that resulted in the convent being burned to the ground by an angry mob. Reed's published narrative, Six Months in a Convent, appeared just as the trials of the rioters were ending in 1835, and became an instant literary success. Monk's supporters capitalized on the lucrative market in anti-Catholic literature, by bringing out the pseudo-pornographic Awful Disclosures of the Hotel Dieu Nunnery in 1836. Monk, who claimed her infant daughter had been fathered by a Catholic priest, was in fact a Montreal prostitute rather than a nun. She enjoyed the life of a literary star in New York before her hoax was uncovered. These two narratives are now available for the first time in a single paperback edition. Nancy Lusignan Schultz's introduction provides a fascinating glimpse into the history, development, and marketing of these phenomenal best-sellers. The convent tales by Reed and Monk are classics that must be read by those interested in American studies, popular culture, social and religious history, literature, and women's studies.
Writing about the theater, the cabaret, fellow artists and feuds, politics and war, the eight artists assembled here represent the finest of the "small form," the sketches and essays fostered in the atmosphere of the Vienna coffeehouse to capture the fleeting impressions of a rapidly changing world. Above all, they are concerned with their world, Austria and particularly Vienna
This collection of speeches delivered in 1987 presents the widely diverging opinions of four men: an eminent politician, a professional soldier, a government consultant, and a distinguished scholar. The first contributor, Senator George S. McGovern, ran as the Democratic candidate for president in 1972 on a platform that called for the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam. The second speaker, General William C. Westmoreland, commanded American military forces in Vietnam until growing battlefield casualties and economic costs undermined support for the strategy of attrition in the United States. The third essay is by Edward N. Luttwak, a strong advocate for military reform in the United States and a frequent participant in high-level government discussions about American strategic interests throughout the world. The fourth speaker Thomas J. McCormack, is a diplomatic historian at the University of Wisconsin and an astute critic of American foreign policy. Each lecture is followed by a lively question-and-answer session that highlights the key points of agreement and disagreement with respect to the fundamental issues raised in the lectures. In a stimulating foreword, Akira Iriye challenges readers to think about the Vietnam War in relationship to the current debate about the role that the United States should play in world affairs.
In Virginia's Native Son, the election of L. Douglas Wilder in Virginia represents the first and only time an African-American has been elected Governor in the United States history. The book hits on five main points of his election and administration (an analysis of the campaign victory, the media's response to the campaign, the racism involved with the election and administration, the administration itself, and the legacy of the administration
Westward We Came is a memoir of Harold B. Kildahl, Sr. and his family pulling up roots in Norway and immigrating to the United States in 1866. It is a vivid description of their travels and settlement in southern Minnesota. Westward We Came is an authentic depiction of difficult pioneer life-true Americana, including the hardships as well as the joys of that time and place.
All paid jobs absorb and degrade the mind. - AristotleOnly by strict specialization can the scientific worker become fully conscious. -- Max WeberNo race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. - Booker T. WashingtonThe group must always dictate the modes of activity for the individual. -- Mary Parker FollettWhy Work: The Perceptions of "A Real Job" and the Rhetoric of Work through the Ages explores the contemporary cultural construction of work, beginning with the expression, "A Real Job." Over time, the concept of "work" was thought to be inherently understood by those who examined societal structures and human interactions. Today, the concept is more transient, and past definitions can be regarded as lacking because the concept of "work" arose from the particulars of an environment. This volume examines "work" in the writings of Aristotle, Plato, Confucius, St. Benedict, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, Mother Jones, Emma Goldman, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Frederick Winslow Taylor, and Mary Parker Follett to answer the question, "Can the concept of work be divorced from the thinker's past?" A final chapter re-examines the core issue in light of the varying concept of "work" and ask one more time "why work?" This work is a result of an Honors seminar at Purdue University.