Science

Between 1850 and 1880, Americans of all ranks and circumstances planted shade trees, cultivated flower gardens, and established lawns with a new found enthusiasm that both astonished and delighted horticultural advocates. For Shade and For Comfort explores this unprecedented burst of horticultural interest, and documents its influence on Midwestern domestic landscapes. Drawing upon a wide range of largely unexplored resources - including lithographic images of farm, village, and city homes; agricultural society records; nursery and seed catalogues; and the diaries and letters of local residents - this innovative study examines how advocates encouraged ornamental plant interest, and then considers the significance of trees and flowers for their mid nineteenth century promoters and for the people who planted and nurtured them. From these diverse perspectives, ornamental plants emerge as densely layered cultural symbols offering not only a very real touch of shade or beauty, but for many, a sense of security and comfort amidst a rapidly changing American society.With its careful portrayal of actual ornamental plant use, its examination of nineteenth century horticultural advice literature and the nursery and seed trades, and its insightful analysis of the meanings attached to shade trees and flower gardens, For Shade and For Comfort will appeal to rural, cultural, and environmental historians, historians of the Midwest, historic preservationists, and those who simply love horticulture and gardening.
The Gendered Lyric argues that gender difference contributes to the definition of aesthetic values and, indeed, shaped the representation of masculine and feminine subjectivity in nineteenth-century French poetry. Gretchen Schultz analyzes works by the leaders of the Romantic, Parnassian, and Symbolist schools to show that their implicit conceptions of gender were central to the formulation of their aesthetics. Prominent Romantic poets (Hugo, Lamartine, Musset) appropriated feminine cultural attributes to construct an empathetic male poet, while the Parnassians of the following generation, including Leconte de Lisle and Gautier, repudiated Romanticism for a more "muscular" and masculinist poetic practice.Women poets writing in the shadows of these great men devised varying strategies, ranging from assimilation to satire, to gain access to poetic subjectivity. Schultz devotes chapters to the Romantic Desbordes-Valmore, as well as several lesser-known Parnassian women, and through close readings explores their accommodations of, and revolts against, the dominant movements. Schultz's appendix of works by women poets provides the reader with a valuable source of heretofore unavailable texts. Symbolists readmitted femininity with a broader, more fluid definition of lyric subjectivity. Even the notoriously misogynist Bauldelaire contributed to the representation of otherness. And in different ways, Verlaine's gay male poetry and Marie Krysinska's innovative free verse battled poetic conventions to fulfill the promises of Symbolism's open poetic stance. The Gendered Lyric is recommended for scholars and students of nineteenth-century French studies, poetry and poetics, and gender studies.
With the appearance of Homer's study, it is no longer possible to base any serious work about organized crime on the superficial debate over whether or not this set of activities is dominated by one or more particular ethnic groups," writes political scientist Michael A. Weinstein in his introduction. "Homer removes the study of organized crime from the realm of sensationalism and ethnic chauvinism, and places it in the context of contemporary American social structure. He reviews prevalent myths and hypotheses about organized crime and critically analyzes them in the framework of contemporary organization theory. In this context, organized crime is analyzed in its economic, political, ethnic, and social class dimensions
In Healing the Heart: Healing the Hood, Olgen Williams traces his dramatic journey from embittered, drug-using Vietnam veteran to nationally acclaimed neighborhood activist. His sudden, miraculous re-orientation from drugs and despair to faith and freedom will inspire all those concerned with the social and personal costs and consequences of illegal drugs and drug-related crime. In, December 2002, for his crime of having stolen less than eleven dollars while serving as a postal worker in 1971, Olgen Williams received one of seven pardons granted by President George W. Bush. Healing the Heart is not only the story of an extraordinary life-in-progress but also a working handbook of tools and techniques for neighborhood activism and transformation.
This wide-ranging and interdisciplinary study draws on sociology, anthropology, history, and literary theory to examine the practice and the literary re-presentation of hospitality. Palmer offers an original synthesis of dramatic texts from early modern England that gives place to Shakespeare and his contemporaries. The literary texts Palmer uses cover a diverse field, from Shakespearean drama to royal progresses, from court entertainment to pamphlet literature. The genre of pageantry, a more ubiquitous form of entertainment than the more-studied public theater, takes over the heart of the study. Through these various genres, Palmer investigates the notion of mediation, the relationship between aesthetic objects and the culture that produced them.
Dewey focuses on seven novels that touch the variety of generic experiments and postures of the post-World War 11 American novel. These novels by Vonnegut, Coover, Percy, Pynchon, Gaddis, and DeLillo represent a significant argument concerning the American literary response to living within the oppressive technologies of the Nuclear Age. Departing from other studies that veer toward speculative fiction or toward the more narrowly defined religious angles, In a Dark Time defines the apocalyptic temper as a most traditional literary genre that articulates the anxieties of a community in crisis, a way for that community to respond to the perception of a history gone critical by turning squarely to that history and to find, in that gesture, the way toward a genuine hope.
Any examination of contemporary society must recognize a central place for information and communication processes and for the technologies and institutions on which they rely, particularly for public communication. The essays in this volume juxtapose two central concepts of recent social and political thought -- civil society and information society - and relate them to the complex nature of contemporary public communication.A number of authors, including several contributors to this collection, argue that on the eve of the twenty-first century, civil society is beginning to disintegrate everywhere. In this volume, fifteen scholars from ten different countries address that argument by problematizing the relation between the older concept, civil society, and the newer one, information society, and offering perspectives on future directions.
Inside Animal Hoarding profiles one of the largest and most intriguing cases of animal hoarding in recent history. Celeste Killeen's investigation pries open the door to Barbara Erickson's hidden and closely guarded life, offering an in-depth view of animal hoarding. The chaos and torment discovered by local officials who'd responded to a ramshackle farmhouse in eastern Oregon was described as otherworldly, unbelievable. But, it was only the sad ending to a lifelong story of betrayal, abuse and abandonment. This in-depth look at how animal hoarding developed in one woman's life offers the rich detail and context so important in understanding how to recognize and respond to it and maybe even prevent it. Dr. Arnold Arluke's discussion follows the Erickson story with current research on animal hoarding and how it ties into the Erickson case. Drawing from his background in sociology and extensive study of the human/animal relationship, Arluke offers further insight about animal hoarders, how they see themselves, how society deals with them, and why people find them so perplexing. This integration of investigative journalism and scholarship offers a fresh approach with appeal to a broad audience of readers, those new to learning about the phenomenon, and those with first-hand experience in the animal welfare field.
Georg Groddeck (1866-1934), who was trained as a physician but became famous for his success as a healer, introduced a radical concept in that we virtually always cause our own illness and injury; therefore, we can cure and avoid both. He utilized the technique of psychoanalysis to communicate with the source of the illness. In The Interpretation of Illness, Homer goes beyond Groddeck's initial insight to emphasize that illness is a communication to others, especially a call for sympathy. No one consciously likes to be sick or hurt; but we all, consciously or unconsciously, tell others about our ills, expecting them to extend sympathy. Interpretation is a series of letters from Homer, writing under the persona "Augie," to a friend. Appropriately enough, this style is similar to the format used by Groddeck in The Book of the It.
This book constitutes a first look at the little-known phenomenon of the Italian/American short film. What becomes apparent is the conspicuous interest these members of the newer generation of Italian/American filmmakers exhibit vis-a-vis their ethnicity, be such films a fiction, a documentary, or a music video. Equally significant is the lens through which they see their Italian/American heritage. While the older generations concentrated more on the by now well-known thematics of immigration and organized crime, as well as the debunking thereof, these younger artists/performers of short films have added to the general theme of heritage, at various degrees, that of race, gender, and sexuality. Anthony Julian Tamburri is a professor of Italian at Florida Atlantic University, where he is also chair of the Department of Languages and Linguistics. He is the author of seven other books, including A Semiotic of Ethnicity: In (Re)cognition of the Italian/American Writer and To Hyphenate or Not to Hypenate: The Italian/American Writer: Or, An Other American? and is editor or co-editor of twelve collections, including the best-selling anthology From the Margin (1991/2000) and Screening Ethnicity (2002). He is a co-founding editor of Voices in Italian Americana: A Literary and Cultural Review.
Lincoln's Censor examines the effect of government suppression on the Democratic press in Indiana during the spring of 1863. Indiana's Democratic newspaper editors were subject to Milo S. Hascall's General Order Number Nine, which proclaimed that all newspaper editors and public speakers that encouraged resistance to the draft or any other war measure would be treated as traitors. Brigadier General Hascall, commander of the District of Indiana, was amplifying General Order Number Thirty-eight of Major General Ambrose Everts Burnside, the commander of the Department of the Ohio. Burnside's order declared that criticism of the president and the war effort was tantamount to "declaring sympathies with the enemy." Eleven Democratic newspapers in Indiana faced suspension.
There is no question that the Passion is the most controversial Jesus-if not religious-movieever made. The articles...are an attempt by academics to explain why. Five essays were presentedin an earlier version at the Jewish Studies Symposium on key issues raised by The Passion of the Christ held at Purdue University on March 30, 2004 (Garber, Mork, Pawlikowski, Robertson, Young); and 15 essays (Bartchy, Edelheit, Edelman, Feldman, Golan, Greenberg, Haas, Holdredge, Jacobs, Libowitz, Moore, Neusner, Wheeler, Zuckerman) complement the Purdue Symposium. The contributors reflect on a plethora of issues, and they show that concerned andinformed Jews and Christians together can assess dis/misinformation, monitor dissent, alleviate community fears, and reassure that the solid rock of Jewish-Catholic-Protestant dialogue, though assailed, has not become chipped. The passion over the "Passion" has proven to be a blessing, not a curse. Indeed, seize the teaching moment and develop the agenda. The respect of two ancient faith-communities demands and deserves this.
In his book Nation and Region in Modern American and European Fiction, Thomas O. Beebee analyzes fictional texts as a "discursive territoriality" that shape readers' notions of (and ambivalence about) national and regional belonging. Several canonical works of literary fiction have provided their readers with verbal maps that in their depictions of boundary spaces construct indirect images of national territory and geography. Beebee analyzes the historical and cultural diversity in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's, Nikolai Gogol’s, and Ivan Turgenev's competing geographies of Russia and its empire, Euclides da Cunha's ambivalent nomination of the sertanejo (backlander) as the "bedrock of the Brazilian race," William Faulkner's and Jose Lins do Rego's cultural memories of the plantation, Jose Maria Arguedas's novelistic ethnogeographies of Andean culture, Juan Benet's construction of region as both metaphor and metonym for Francoist Spain, and the "utopian" North American (U.S. and Canada) desert landscapes of Mary Austin, Nicole Brossard, and Joy Harjo.
Jin Feng proposes that representation of the "new woman" in Communist Chinese fiction of the earlier twentieth century was paradoxically one of the ways in which male writers of the era explored, negotiated, and laid claim to their own emerging identity as "modern" intellectuals. Previous scholarship on fiction of the period occasionally probed the thematic implications of female characters in specific works but has not engaged in systematic study of the "new woman" as a figure through a discussion of the politics of the narrative form. Feng addresses both the general and the specialized audience of fiction in early-twentieth-century Chinese fiction in three ways: for scholars of the May Fourth period, Feng redresses the emphasis on the simplistic, gender-neutral representation of the new women by re-reading selected texts in the light of marginalized discourse and by an analysis of the evolving strategies of narrative deployment; for those working in the area of feminism and literary studies, Feng develops a new method of studying the representation of Chinese women through an interrogation of narrative permutations, ideological discourses, and gender relationships; and for studies of modernity and modernization, the author presents a more complex picture of the relationships of modern Chinese intellectuals to their cultural past and of women writers to a literary tradition dominated by men.  
Essays explore the origins of the current situation in global financial capital from the perspectives of economics, geography, international law, and international politics. Specific topics include offshore and the structural building of sovereignty, international banking and offshore finance, and offshore finance and citizenship. Includes case studies on tax havens, such as Malaysia, Malta, and South Africa
The hypothesis of Paolo Bartoloni's book is based on the belief that a substantial and innovative discussion of the philosophical notions of immanence and potentiality is not only overdue but also necessary to address the social, political, cultural, and ethical aporia confronting us today. The phenomenon of globalization with its countless sub-narratives such as mobility, migration, security, authenticity, and inauthenticity can be thought and contextualized through a close reading and articulation of immanence and potentiality. The author provides a tangible and workable philosophical and cultural discourse within which to present an alternative understanding of subjectivity by engaging in a theoretical discussion with the philosophical discourse on potentiality and immanence, of which the writings of Gilles Deleuze and Giorgio Agamben are among the most advanced and innovative examples to date. Secondly, Bartoloni presents a virtual insight into the potential immanent subject and community through exploring a radically new interpretation of exile, translation, and temporality. Finally, the author shows how the experience of potentiality and immanence, and their ontological statuses have been explored and realized in literature through a close reading and articulation of a series of selected texts, especially works by Giorgio Caproni and Maurice Blanchot. The methodology of the study is interdisciplinary, ranging across literary theory, postmodern cultural analysis, hermeneutics, and comparative culture analysis.
Although a self-taught botanist, Charlie Deam (1865-1953) once served as state forester for Indiana and is revered as a pioneer in the field of botany. He traveled more than 100,000 miles throughout the state in his lifetime collecting 73,000 plant specimens. His four volumes about the flora, grasses, shrubs, and trees of Indiana resulted, among other things, in three honorary degrees. Deam's herbarium and 3,000-volume botanical library are now housed at Indiana University.
The relationship between dogs and humans has been represented and contemplated since the beginning of human culture. Lasting expressions of this interest can be found in art, philosophy, literature, and science. With the rise of biological and social sciences in the nineteenth century, disciplinary frames of analysis have increasingly been brought to bear on this topic. These include, among others, evolutionism, biology, genetics, psychology, ethology, anthropology and sociology, with a more recent trend toward interdisciplinary treatments.At present, there is a large body of scientific literature about the relationship between humans and dogs based upon primarily biological, genetic and psychological approaches. It is only within the past decade that sociologists have shown a concerted interest in the social organization of dog-human interaction, and Playing with My Dog Katie is an example of this movement. This unique contribution to the literature-- an in-depth case study of a single dog and her guardian (the author) at play uses an "ethnomethodological" approach, an important aspect of the research is providing the reader with various kinds of data-in written, photographic and video formats-in order to display the phenomenon of play as ordinary, mundane practice. Based upon these data, various theoretical, methodological and empirical issues regarding our understanding of dog-human play are explored. Some of these include: anthropomorphism and anthropomorphic language, the social organization of different 'kinds' (guardian, guide-dog, working dog) of dog-human relationships, the conceptualization of play as an interspecies activity, and intersubjectivity (loosely meaning mutual understanding) between dogs and humans.
This book examines how one of Imperial Austria's principal ethnic conflicts, that between Czechs and Germans, developed in one of the major cities during the era of industrialization and urban growth. It shows how the inhabitants of Prague, the capital of Bohemia, constructed and articulated ethnic group loyalties and social solidarities over the course of the nineteenth century. The German-speaking inhabitants of the Bohemian capital developed a group identification and defined themselves as a minority as they dealt with growing Czech political and economic strength in the city and with their own sharp numerical decline: in the 1910 census only seven percent of the metropolitan population claimed that they spoke primarily German. The study uses census returns, extensive police and bureaucratic records, newspaper accounts, and memoirs on local social and political life to show how the German minority and the Czech majority developed demographically and economically in relation to each other and created separate social and political lives for their group members. The study carefully traces the roles of occupation, class, religion, and political ideology in the formation of German group loyalties and social solidarities. The social relations which bound together the members of the German-speaking minority and the social boundaries which separated them from the Czech majority at the end of the nineteenth century proved to be selective, and considerable contact went on across the lines in many facets of individuals' everyday life. As the German minority developed a shared group life, what came to define them and to separate them from the Czech majority was a shared Austro-German ethnic and national loyalty, an Austro-German national liberal ideology, the defense of common middle-class and lower-middle-class social and political interests, and a shared German public life. Both German-speaking Catholics and Jews could share in the sense of German community and group solidarity, provided they upheld middle-class liberal values. The bonds of community for the middle-class and lower-middle- class Germans in Prague established in the 1860s tended to exclude German-speaking wage laborers and lower middle class radical nationalists, who might challenge liberal national values. Despite all the efforts to strengthen German community solidarity and combat assimilation of German-speakers with the Czech majority from the 1880s to after 1900, the organized German community could do little to prevent the absorption of working-class German-speakers into the Czech population of the industrial districts.
Chabot Davis analyzes contemporary texts that bond together two seemingly antithetical sensibilities: the sentimental and the postmodern. Ranging across multiple media and offering a methodological union of textual analysis and reception study, Chabot Davis presents case studies of audience responses. Chabot Davis argues that sentimental postmodernism deepened leftist political engagement by moving audiences to identify emotionally with people across the divisions of gender, sexual identity, race, and ethnicity. This study questions the critical equation of postmodernism with apocalyptic nihilism and political apathy. The book also challenges the assumption that sentimentality and sympathy are inherently conservative and imperialistic.
Serious illness and mortality, those most universal, unavoidable, and frightening of human experiences, are the focus of this pioneering study, which has been hailed as a telling and provocative commentary on our times. As modern medicine has become more scientific and dispassionate, a new literary genre as emerged: pathography, the personal narrative concerning illness, treatment and sometimes death. Hawkins's sensitive reading of numerous pathographies highlights the assumptions, attitudes, and myths that people bring to the medical encounter. One factor emerges again and again in these "case studies": the tendency in contemporary medical practice to focus primarily not on the needs of the individual who is sick but on the condition that we call disease. Recommended for medical practitioners, the clergy, caregivers, students of popular culture, and the general reader, Reconstructing Illness demonstrates that "only when we hear both the doctor's and the patient's voice will we have a medicine that is truly human."
Serious illness and mortality, those most universal, unavoidable, and frightening of human experiences, are the focus of this pioneering study, which has been hailed as a telling and provocative commentary on our times. As modern medicine has become more scientific and dispassionate, a new literary genre as emerged: pathography, the personal narrative concerning illness, treatment and sometimes death. Hawkins's sensitive reading of numerous pathographies highlights the assumptions, attitudes, and myths that people bring to the medical encounter. One factor emerges again and again in these "case studies": the tendency in contemporary medical practice to focus primarily not on the needs of the individual who is sick but on the condition that we call disease. Recommended for medical practitioners, the clergy, caregivers, students of popular culture, and the general reader, Reconstructing Illness demonstrates that "only when we hear both the doctor's and the patient's voice will we have a medicine that is truly human."
Rural Reminiscences is a poignant record of one family's survival during depressed economic times. It also details the management of a highly diversified farm operation that was changing from horsepower on the hoof to under the hood. It explains and describes the operation of farm machinery powered by draft horses and the frustrations farmers experienced as they tried to adapt to the internal combustion engine.
This volume chronicles the media's role in reshaping American life during the tumultuous nineteenth century by focusing specifically on the presentation of race and gender in the newspapers and magazines of the time. The work is divided into four parts: Part I, "Race Reporting," details the various ways in which America's racial minorities were portrayed; Part II, "Fires of Discontent," looks at the moral and religious opposition to slavery by the abolitionist movement and demonstrates how that opposition was echoed by African Americans themselves; Part III, "The Cult of True Womanhood," examines the often disparate ways in which American women were portrayed in the national media as they assumed a greater role in public and private life; and Part IV, "Transcending the Boundaries," traces the lives of pioneering women journalists who sought to alter and expand their gender's participation in American life, showing how the changing role of women led to various journalistic attempts to depict and define women through sensationalistic news coverage of female crime stories.
Recent decades have witnessed diverse incarnations and bold sequences of Shakespeare on screen and stage. Hollywood films and a century of Asian readings of plays such as Hamlet and Macbeth are now conjoining in cyberspace, making a world of difference to how we experience Shakespeare. Shakespeare in Hollywood, Asia, and Cyberspace shows readers how ideas of Asia operate in Shakespeare performances and how Asian and Anglo-European forms of cultural production combine to transcend the mode of inquiry that focuses on fidelity. The result is a new creativity that finds expression in different cultural and virtual locations, including recent films and MMOGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games). The papers in the volume provide a background for these modern developments, showing the history of how Shakespeare became a signifier against which Asian and Western cultures defined - and continue to define - themselves. Authors in the first part of the collection examine culture and gender in Hollywood Shakespearean film and complement the second part in which the history of Shakespearean readings and stagings in China, Indonesia, Cambodia, Japan, Okinawa, Taiwan, Malaya, Korea, and Hong Kong are discussed. Papers in the third part of the volume analyze the transformation of the idea of Shakespeare in cyberspace, a rapidly expanding world of new rewritings of both Shakespeare and Asia. Together, the three sections of this comparative study demonstrate how Asian cultures and Shakespeare affect each other and how the combination of Asian and Anglo-European modes of representation are determining the future of how we see Shakespeare's plays.