Science

Adopting an empirical and systematic approach, this interdisciplinary study of medieval Persian Sufi tradition and ʿAttār (1145–1221) opens up a new space of comparison for reading and understanding medieval Persian and European literatures. The book invites us on an intellectual journey that reveals exciting intersections that redefine the hierarchies and terms of comparison. While the primary focus of the book is on reassessing the significance of the concept of transgression and construction of subjectivity within select works of ʿAttār within Persian Sufi tradition, the author also creates a bridge between medieval and modern, literature and theory, and European and Middle Eastern cultures through reading these works alongside one another. Of significance to the author is ʿAttār’s treatment of enlightenment with regard to class, religious, gender, and sexuality transgressions. In this book, the relation between transgression and the limit is not viewed as one of liberation from oppressive restrictions, but of undoing the structures that produce constraining binaries; it allows for alternatives and possibilities. In conjunction with the concepts of transgression and the limit, the presence of society’s marginalized pariahs, outcasts, and untouchables are central to the book’s main argument about construction of subjectivity, which the author believes is framed within ʿAttār’s notion of mystical love and human diversity. The book addresses the question of whether concepts such as transgression, limit, and subjectivity are solely applicable to modern times, or they can shed light on our understanding of transgression and subjectivity from the past. The author’s comparative inquiries aim to intensify our understanding of these notions advanced in both the medieval and the modern world. Through summoning works from various genres, disciplines, cultures, and times, the author posits that medieval literary works are living texts that can reveal as much about our present selves as they do about the past.
Terrortimes, Terrorscapes: Continuities of Space, Time, and Memory in Twentieth-Century War and Genocide investigates interconnections between space and violence throughout the twentieth century, and how such connections informed collective memory. The interdisciplinary volume shows how entangled notions of time and space amplified by memory narratives led to continuities of violence across different conflicts creating “terrortimes” and “terrorscapes” in their wake. The volume examines such continuities of violence with the help of an analytical framework built around different themes. Its first part, spatial and temporal continuities of violence, looks at contested spaces and ideas of national, ethnic, or religious homogeneity that are often at the heart of prolonged conflicts. The second part, on states and actors, addresses the role of states as enablers of violence, asymmetric power dynamics, and the connection between imperialism and genocide in Africa. Imagination and emotion—the focus of the third part—explores utopian visions and their limits that instigate or hinder, and the mobilization of emotion through propaganda. Finally, the fourth part shows how the recollection of the past sometimes triggers new terrortimes. Departing from an understanding of violence limited to certain areas and time frames, this volume describes continuities of violence as overlapping fabrics woven together from notions of space, time, and memory.
The Trump presidency has resulted in a fundamentally disruptive moment in this nation’s political culture. Not only were there different policy options and directions, but the cultural artifacts of politics changed because of how this president dramatically challenged the existing norms of political behavior and action. As we have shifted from a period of American liberalism to a time of political populism, deep fissures are dividing Americans in general and Jews in particular.   The Impact of the Presidency of Donald Trump on American Jewry and Israel unpacks President Donald Trump’s distinctive and unique relationship with the American Jewish community and the State of Israel. Addressing the various dimensions of his personal and political connections with Jews and Israel, this publication is designed to provide an assessment of how the Trump presidency has influenced and altered American Jewish political behavior. Writers from different backgrounds and political orientations bring a broad range of perspectives designed to examine various aspects of this presidency, including Trump’s particular impact on Israel-US relations, his special connection with Orthodox Jews, and his complex and uneven relationship with Jewish Republicans.   For liberal American Jews, these four years represented a fundamental revolution, overturning and challenging much that a generation of activists had fought to achieve and protect. For Trump’s supporters, it afforded them an opportunity to advance their priorities, while joining the forty-fifth president in changing the American political landscape. The “Trump effect” will extend well beyond his four-year tenure, creating an environment that has fomented the politics of hate and exposed a deeply embedded presence of anti-Semitism. How Americans understand this moment in time and the ways society will adapt can be reflected through the prism of the Jewish encounter with Trumpism that this volume seeks to explore.
Despite the importance of historical and contemporary migration to the American Jewish community, popular awareness of the diversity and complexity of the American Jewish migration legacy is limited and largely focused upon Yiddish-speaking Jews who left the Pale of Settlement in Eastern Europe between 1880 and 1920 to settle in eastern and midwestern cities.   Wandering Jews provides readers with a broader understanding of the Jewish experience of migration in the United States and elsewhere. It describes the record of a wide variety of Jewish migrant groups, including those encountering different locations of settlement, historical periods, and facets of the migration experience. While migrants who left the Pale of Settlement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are discussed, the volume’s authors also explore less well-studied topics. These include the fate of contemporary Jewish academics who seek to build communities in midwestern and western college towns; the adaptation experience of recent Jewish migrants from Latin America, Israel, and the former Soviet Union; the adjustment of Iranian Jews; the experience of contemporary Jewish migrants in France and Belgium; the return of Israelis living abroad; and a number of other topics. Interdisciplinary, the volume draws upon history, sociology, geography, and other fields.   Written in a lively and accessible style,Wandering Jews will appeal to a wide range of readers, including students and scholars in Jewish studies, international migration, history, ethnic studies, and religious studies, as well as general-interest readers.
Jewish identity is a perennial concern, as Jews seek to define the major features and categories of those who “belong,” while at the same time draw distinctions between individuals and groups on the “inside” and those on the “outside.” From a variety of perspectives, scholarly as well as confessional, there is intense interest among non-Jewish and Jewish commentators alike in the basic question, “Who is a Jew?”   This collection of articles draws diverse historical, cultural, and religious insights from scholars who represent a wide range of academic and theological disciplines. Some of the authors directly address the issue of Jewish identity as it is being played out today in Israel and Diaspora communities. Others look to earlier time periods or societies as invaluable resources for enhanced and deepened analysis of contemporary matters.   All authors in this collection make a concerted effort to present their evidence and their conclusions in a way that is accessible to the general public and valid for other scholars. The result is a richly textured approach to a topic that seems always relevant. If no single answer appeals to all of the authors, this is as it should be. We all gain from the application of a number of approaches and perspectives, which enrich our appreciation of the people whose lives are affected, for better or worse, by real-life discussions of this issue and the resultant actions toward exclusivity or inclusivity.    
This coffee-table book uses color photographs and captions to tell the story of the first one hundred years of the Purdue University School of Chemical Engineering. Formed four years after a chemical engineering curriculum was established at the University, the School grew rapidly in size and reputation. It was a leader in encouraging women and minority students to become engineers, and it produced many substantial scientific contributions. The School continues to provide expertise and solutions to the “grand challenge” problems that the world faces today, whether in energy, nanotechnology, biotechnology, health care, or advanced materials. Among its thirty faculty members, five are members of the National Academy of Engineering.
Authentic Knowing is an accessible and humane presentation of our most basic concerns and draws on a wide variety of, disciplines, including philosophy, psychology, and theoretical physics. Enhanced with the author's own varied experiences and copious references for those who seek to read further, this book will appeal to and challenge scientists, psychologists, and all those who have ever asked about the meaning of life.
As reviewers of research on school desegregation have pointed out, it is important to learn more about the conditions under which interracial contact in schools has positive, rather than negative, effects on students. This book presents the results of a major study, which investigates this issue. Based on research in all the public high schools of Indianapolis, it is probably the most in-depth investigation of interracial contact in schools, which has ever been conducted. After describing the behaviors and attitudes of black students and of white students toward schoolmates of the other race, the author explores the conditions under which friendly, rather than unfriendly, attitudes and behavior occur. He also explores the effects of interracial contact on academic outcomes for students of both races, focusing especially on the conditions under which such contact has the most positive effects on effort and performance. Results are presented in the context of previous theory and research, and policy implications of the findings are suggested. The book will interest both academics and those non-academics concerned with schools and with race relations, including sociologists, social psychologists, educators, government officials, and members of the community concerned with educational and/or race relations issues in general and with the issues of racial integration in the schools in particular.
The scholarship in the volume Comparative Cultural Studies and Latin America represents the proposition that, given its vitality and excellence, Latin American literature deserves a more prominent place in comparative literature publications, curricula, and disciplinary discussions. The editors of the volume argue that there still exists, in some quarters, a lingering bias against literature written in Spanish and Portuguese and that by embracing Latin American literature more enthusiastically, comparative literature in the context of comparative cultural studies would find itself reinvigorated, placed into productive discourse with a host of issues, languages, literatures, and cultures that have too long been paid scant attention in its purview. Following an introduction by the editors, the volume contains papers by Gene H. Bell-Villada on the question of canon, by Gordon Brotherston and Lúcia de Sá on the First Peoples of the Americas and their literature, by Elizabeth Coonrod Martínez on the Latin American novel of the 1920s, by Román de la Campa on Latin American Studies, by Earl E. Fitz on Spanish American and Brazilian literature, by Roberto González Echevarría on Latin American and comparative literature, by Sophia A. McClennen on comparative literature and Latin American Studies, by Alberto Moreiras on Borges, by Julio Ortega on the critical debate about Latin American cultural studies, by Christina Marie Tourino on Cuban Americas in New York City, by Mario J. Valdés on the comparative history of literary cultures in Latin America, and by Lois Parkinson Zamora on comparative literature and globalization. The volume also contains a bibliography of scholarship in comparative Latin American culture and literature and biographical abstracts of the contributors to the volume.
The papers in this volume represent recent scholarship about Booker Prize Winner Michael Ondaatje's oeuvre by scholars working on English-Canadian literature and culture in Canada, England, Japan, New Zealand, and the USA. Papers in the volume are Victoria Cook, "Exploring Transnational Identities in Ondaatje's Anil's Ghost"; Beverley Curran, "Ondaatje's The English Patient and Altered States of Narrative"; Marlene Goldman, "Representations of Buddhism in Ondaatje's Anil's Ghost," Stephanie M. Hilger, "Ondaatje's The English Patient and Rewriting History"; Hsuan Hsu, "Post-Nationalism and the Cinematic Apparatus in Minghella's Adaptation of Ondaatje's The English Patient"; Glen Lowry, "The Representation of 'Race' in Ondaatje's In the Skin of a Lion"; Jon Saklofske, "The Motif of the Collector and Implications of Historical Appropriation in Ondaatje's Novels"; Sandeep Sanghera, "Touching the Language of Citizenship in Ondaatje's Anil's Ghost"; Eluned Summers-Bremner, "Reading Ondaatje's Poetry"; Winfried Siemerling, "Oral History and the Writing of the Other in Ondaatje's In the Skin of a Lion"; Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, "Ondaatje's The English Patient and Questions of History"; Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, "Selected Bibliography of Critical Work about Michael Ondaatje's Texts" and "A List of Michael Ondaatje's Works"; Bioprofiles of Contributors and Index.
Articles in this volume focus on theories and histories of comparative literature and the emerging field of comparative cultural studies. Contributors are Kwaku Asante-Darko on African postcolonial literature, Hendrik Birus on Goethe's concept of world literature, Amiya Dev on comparative literature in India, Marián Gálik on interliterariness, Ernst Grabovszki on globalization, new media, and world literature, Jan Walsh Hokenson on the culture of the context, Marko Juvan on literariness, Karl S.Y. Kao on metaphor, Kristof Jacek Kozak on comparative literature in Slovenia, Manuela Mourão on comparative literature in the USA, Jola Skulj on cultural identity, Slobodan Sucur on period styles and theory, Peter Swirski on popular and highbrow literature, Antony Tatlow on textual anthropology, William H. Thornton on East/West power politics in cultural studies, Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek on comparative cultural studies, and Xiaoyi Zhou and Q.S. Tong on comparative literature in China. The articles are followed by a bibliography of scholarship in comparative literature and cultural studies, compiled by Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek, Steven Aoun, and Wendy C. Nielsen.
Computer scientists offer 19 papers on areas particularly dear to their Purdue-based colleague and teacher: mathematical software, problem solving environments and computational science, and computational mathematics. Among specific topics are numerical algorithm delivery mechanisms, a component-based architecture, and an accurate approximate solution of partial differential equations at off-mesh points. The disc contains a DVD documentary.
Community Theory is a hot topic. However, most people think about community in terms that are far too simplistic, thus failing to understand the complex interrelationships between individuals and communities. Each individual has many communities influencing the individual simultaneously. Indeed, individuals are as much a product of their collective communities as the communities are a product of their collective memberships. The concept of belonging to several communities is not a new idea. However, researchers and practitioners have paid little attention to the impacts of simultaneous membership in diverse communities. This book will examine some important questions about community, including the following: What is a community? How can community be defined? How does membership in several communities affect our personalities and behaviors? How important is community to the individual?
This study is about the aporia between cosmopolitanism as a sign of justice and cosmopolitanism as the consumption and display of international luxury items and cultural production. Turn-of-the-century Pan-American cosmopolitanism described international aesthetic culture and fashion drawn from major world cities, but it was also implicitly political, it held a promise of justice in the acceptance and coexistence of difference. Although unrepentantly elitist, the cosmo-modernists transcended the genetic link between nationalisms and heteronormative versions of family often by turning to the classical model of a male homosocial. Fojas engages the work of Guatemalan Enrique Gómez Carrillo, the travel writings from the Chicago World's Fair of Cuban Aurelia Castillo de González, the Venezuelan journal Cosmópolis, and Rodó's infamous Ariel, all of which share a common principle of the practical application of cosmopolitanism. They revisit the failures of Eurocentric cosmopolitanism by rewriting them, recasting them for a new audience, and generally making use of them for their own purposes. But, above all, they grapple with cosmopolitanism, sometimes conceptualizing new models of hospitality and sometimes failing, nonetheless keeping the broken promise of utopic spaces and their imagined cities. These texts activate a cosmopolitan attitude by persuading the reader to be more open, more modern, and more amenable to difference.
This book examines contemporary French society's relationship with violence in an era of increased media dominance. The study's innovative and interdisciplinary approach integrates media, cinema, and literary studies to analyze how crime news (faits divers) function as a site of discursive struggle. Reisinger focuses on the sensational Paulin and Succo affairs that became mobile signifiers about crime, insecurity, and the Other in France in the 1980s. By situating these crime stories in a larger historical and political context, she analyzes how media and politicians use the crime story as a tool for upholding dominant ideology. Yet, rather than conclude that the crime story has become an absolute banality, as Jean Baudrillard has maintained, Reisinger shows how these crime stories attest to the public's renewed fascination with violence. Her analysis of the artistic rewritings of these stories reveal alternative, complex readings of the fait divers that subvert the media's sensationalized discourse on crime effectively. Through an analysis of the complex processes of production, reception, and re-articulation that contribute to the representation of crime in media and on the stage, the study concludes that the fait divers is an important location of social and political resistance for readers and artists alike in contemporary France.
Cultural Shaping of Violence proposes that violence cannot be described, let alone understond or addressed, unless tied to the cultural settings that influence it. The book's 27 chapters, researched and written by 28 scholars of seven nationalities, document violence in 22 distinct cultural settings in 17 nation-states on five continents. Internal to each society, a number of sites of violence may thrive, from the domestic sphere to social institutions and political arenas. In whatever site or guise, violence reverberates throughout the social fabric and beyond.
The history of exile literature is as old as the history of writing itself. Despite this vast and varied literary tradition, criticism of exile writing has tended to analyze these works according to a binary logic, where exile either produces creative freedom or it traps the writer in restrictive nostalgia. The Dialectics of Exile: Nation, Time, Language and Space in Hispanic Literatures offers a theory of exile writing that accounts for the persistence of these dual impulses and for the ways that they often co exist within the same literary works. Focusing on writers working in the latter part of the 20th century who were exiled during a historical moment of increasing globalization, transnational economics and the theoretical shifts of postmodernism, Sophia A. McClennen proposes that exile literature is best understood as a series of dialectic tensions about cultural identity. Through comparative analysis of Juan Goytisolo (Spain), Ariel Dorfman (Chile) and Cristina Peri Rossi (Uruguay), this book explores how these writers represent exile identity. Each chapter addresses dilemmas central to debates over cultural identity such as nationalism versus globalization, time as historical or cyclical, language as representationally accurate or disconnected from reality, and social space as utopic or dystopic. McClennen demonstrates how the complex writing of these three authors functions as an alternative discourse of cultural identity that not only challenges official versions imposed by authoritarian regimes, but also tests the limits of much cultural criticism.
The largest collection of articles on the three major gene families, this work ranges from enzymology to molecular biology to physiological implications. The three gene families are related in that the enzymes catalyse the NAD(P) dependent oxidation or reduction of carbonyl containing substrates. The substrates are important in diverse areas such as alcoholism, diabetes and cancer related problems as well as simple detoxification. The scope of the chapters, contributed by leading international scientists, is wide and covers gene regulation to enzyme mechanisms and protein structure. This is the only publication dealing in such depth with just three gene families. It is an important reference for researchers in toxicology and molecular biology.
The continuation of an annual series, Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Carbonyl Metabolism is the largest collection of articles on the three major gene families. The scope of the chapters, contributed by leading international scientists, is wide and covers gene regulation to enzyme mechanisms and protein structure. This is the only publication dealing in such depth with just three gene families. It is an important reference for researchers in toxicology and molecular biology.
This volume concerns itself with the ethical principles and concepts relating to the environment: nature, resources and the planet. This is placed in the context of ethical theory, and consideration is given to the way these values have transformed received ethical traditions. Issues include the intrinsic value of nonhuman species, obligations to future generations, and the aesthetic needs of humanity. Both the universal responsibilities and their application are investigated. The international responsibilities to the planet are seen in the context of some of the most alarming future scenarios: limited access to water, the changing global climate, population explosion, the destruction of ecosystems, and even the extinction of humanity
In her book Fantasies of Gender and the Witch in Feminist Theory and Literature, Justyna Sempruch analyses contemporary representations of the "witch" as a locus for the cultural negotiation of genders. Sempruch revisits some of the most prominent traits in past and current perceptions in feminist scholarship of exclusion and difference. She examines a selection of 20th century US-American, Canadian, and European narratives to reveal the continued political relevance of metaphors sustained in the archetype of the "witch" widely thought to belong to pop-cultural or folkloristic formulations of the past. Through a critical re-reading of the feminist texts engaging with these metaphors, Sempruch develops a new concept of the witch, one that challenges traditional gender-biased theories linking it either to a malevolent "hag" on the margins of culture or to unrestrained "feminine" sexual desire. Sempruch turns, instead, to the causes for radical feminist critique of "feminine" sexuality as a fabrication of logocentric thinking and shows that the problematic conversion of the "hag" into a "superwoman" can be interpreted today as a therapeutic performance translating fixed identity into a site of continuous negotiation of the subject in process. Tracing the development of feminist constructs of the witch from 1970s radical texts to the present, Sempruch explores the early psychoanalytical writings of Cixous, Kristeva, and Irigaray and feminist reformulations of identity by Butler and Braidotti together with fictional texts from different political and cultural contexts.
This collection contains twenty-seven new essays on American paranoia drawn from a range of disciplines, including American studies, film studies, history, literature, religious studies, and sociology. It's arranged by topic and largely in chronological order, explore manifestations of fear throughout the history of the United States. Approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives and methodologies, contributors to the collection explore theoretical constructions of fear, religious intolerance in early American culture, racial discrimination, literary expressions of paranoia, and Cold War anxieties, as well as phobias of the modern age and about the future. Together, these essays cover topics from nearly every period of U.S. history, offering a remarkable picture of the "nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror" that Roosevelt discerned as such a paralyzing threat on the eve of the Second World War, and which continues to haunt American culture even as we shape our perceptions of the future.
Between 1850 and 1880, Americans of all ranks and circumstances planted shade trees, cultivated flower gardens, and established lawns with a new found enthusiasm that both astonished and delighted horticultural advocates. For Shade and For Comfort explores this unprecedented burst of horticultural interest, and documents its influence on Midwestern domestic landscapes. Drawing upon a wide range of largely unexplored resources - including lithographic images of farm, village, and city homes; agricultural society records; nursery and seed catalogues; and the diaries and letters of local residents - this innovative study examines how advocates encouraged ornamental plant interest, and then considers the significance of trees and flowers for their mid nineteenth century promoters and for the people who planted and nurtured them. From these diverse perspectives, ornamental plants emerge as densely layered cultural symbols offering not only a very real touch of shade or beauty, but for many, a sense of security and comfort amidst a rapidly changing American society.With its careful portrayal of actual ornamental plant use, its examination of nineteenth century horticultural advice literature and the nursery and seed trades, and its insightful analysis of the meanings attached to shade trees and flower gardens, For Shade and For Comfort will appeal to rural, cultural, and environmental historians, historians of the Midwest, historic preservationists, and those who simply love horticulture and gardening.
The Gendered Lyric argues that gender difference contributes to the definition of aesthetic values and, indeed, shaped the representation of masculine and feminine subjectivity in nineteenth-century French poetry. Gretchen Schultz analyzes works by the leaders of the Romantic, Parnassian, and Symbolist schools to show that their implicit conceptions of gender were central to the formulation of their aesthetics. Prominent Romantic poets (Hugo, Lamartine, Musset) appropriated feminine cultural attributes to construct an empathetic male poet, while the Parnassians of the following generation, including Leconte de Lisle and Gautier, repudiated Romanticism for a more "muscular" and masculinist poetic practice.Women poets writing in the shadows of these great men devised varying strategies, ranging from assimilation to satire, to gain access to poetic subjectivity. Schultz devotes chapters to the Romantic Desbordes-Valmore, as well as several lesser-known Parnassian women, and through close readings explores their accommodations of, and revolts against, the dominant movements. Schultz's appendix of works by women poets provides the reader with a valuable source of heretofore unavailable texts. Symbolists readmitted femininity with a broader, more fluid definition of lyric subjectivity. Even the notoriously misogynist Bauldelaire contributed to the representation of otherness. And in different ways, Verlaine's gay male poetry and Marie Krysinska's innovative free verse battled poetic conventions to fulfill the promises of Symbolism's open poetic stance. The Gendered Lyric is recommended for scholars and students of nineteenth-century French studies, poetry and poetics, and gender studies.
With the appearance of Homer's study, it is no longer possible to base any serious work about organized crime on the superficial debate over whether or not this set of activities is dominated by one or more particular ethnic groups," writes political scientist Michael A. Weinstein in his introduction. "Homer removes the study of organized crime from the realm of sensationalism and ethnic chauvinism, and places it in the context of contemporary American social structure. He reviews prevalent myths and hypotheses about organized crime and critically analyzes them in the framework of contemporary organization theory. In this context, organized crime is analyzed in its economic, political, ethnic, and social class dimensions